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  • Cell Research
    Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales Universidad de Buenos Aires Ciudad Universitaria Pabellón 2 C1428EHA Buenos Aires Argentina Correspondence Alberto R Kornblihtt E mail ark fbmc fcen uba ar The zinc finger DNA binding protein CTCF has been known for being a constituent of insulators A recent paper in Nature reports an unforeseen intragenic role for CTCF that links DNA methylation with alternative splicing By binding to its target DNA

    Original URL path: http://www.cell-research.com/arts.asp?id=193 (2016-02-14)
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  • Cell Research
    of Malaria and Vector Research National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases National Institutes of Health Bethesda Maryland 20892 8132 USA Correspondence Thomas E Wellems E mail twellems niaid nih gov In patients with malaria Plasmodium falciparum parasites multiply to enormous numbers in the bloodstream initiating processes of erythrocyte destruction endothelial activation and microvascular inflammation that cause devastating pathological effects on host tissues and organs Recent research casts new light

    Original URL path: http://www.cell-research.com/arts.asp?id=194 (2016-02-14)
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  • Cell Research
    3 Centers for Cancer Epigenetics Stem Cell and Developmental Biology RNA Interference and Non coding RNAs and Molecular Carcinogenesis the University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center Houston TX 77030 USA 4 Cancer Stem Cell Institute Research Center for Translational Medicine East Hospital Tongji University Shanghai 200120 China Correspondence Dean G Tang Tel 512 237 9575 E mail dtang mdanderson org Heterogeneity is an omnipresent feature of mammalian cells in vitro and in vivo It has been recently realized that even mouse and human embryonic stem cells under the best culture conditions are heterogeneous containing pluripotent as well as partially committed cells Somatic stem cells in adult organs are also heterogeneous containing many subpopulations of self renewing cells with distinct regenerative capacity The differentiated progeny of adult stem cells also retain significant developmental plasticity that can be induced by a wide variety of experimental approaches Like normal stem cells recent data suggest that cancer stem cells CSCs similarly display significant phenotypic and functional heterogeneity and that the CSC progeny can manifest diverse plasticity Here I discuss CSC heterogeneity and plasticity in the context of tumor development and progression and by comparing with normal stem cell development Appreciation of cancer

    Original URL path: http://www.cell-research.com/arts.asp?id=195 (2016-02-14)
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  • Cell Research
    Deng 1 Lei Liu 1 4 Ning Gao 2 Li Yu 1 3 and Yigong Shi 1 2 1 Tsinghua Peking Joint Center for Life Sciences Tsinghua University Beijing 100084 China 2 Center for Structural Biology Tsinghua University Beijing 100084 China 3 State Key Laboratory of Bio membrane and Membrane Biotechnology School of Life Sciences and School of Medicine Tsinghua University Beijing 100084 China 4 Department of Chemistry Tsinghua University Beijing 100084 China Correspondence Li Yu Yigong Shi E mail liyulab tsinghua edu cn shi lab tsinghua edu cn The Beclin 1 gene is a haplo insufficient tumor suppressor and plays an essential role in autophagy However the molecular mechanism by which Beclin 1 functions remains largely unknown Here we report the crystal structure of the evolutionarily conserved domain ECD of Beclin 1 at 1 6 Å resolution Beclin 1 ECD exhibits a previously unreported fold with three structural repeats arranged symmetrically around a central axis Beclin 1 ECD defines a novel class of membrane binding domain with a strong preference for lipid membrane enriched with cardiolipin The tip of a surface loop in Beclin 1 ECD comprising three aromatic amino acids acts as a hydrophobic finger to associate with

    Original URL path: http://www.cell-research.com/arts.asp?id=196 (2016-02-14)
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  • Cell Research
    Qingsong Tang 1 and Keji Zhao 1 1 Systems Biology Center National Heart Lung and Blood Institute Bethesda MD 20892 USA 2 Section of Cancer Genomics National Cancer Institute National Institutes of Health Bethesda MD 20892 USA Correspondence Keji Zhao Tel zhaok nhlbi nih gov E mail 1 301 496 2098 Recent epigenomic studies have predicted thousands of potential enhancers in the human genome However there has not been systematic characterization of target promoters for these potential enhancers Using H3K4me2 as a mark for active enhancers we identified genome wide EP interactions in human CD4 T cells Among the 6 520 long distance chromatin interactions we identify 2 067 enhancers that interact with 1 619 promoters and enhance their expression These enhancers exist in accessible chromatin regions and are associated with various histone modifications and polymerase II binding The promoters with interacting enhancers are expressed at higher levels than those without interacting enhancers and their expression levels are positively correlated with the number of interacting enhancers Interestingly interacting promoters are co expressed in a tissue specific manner We also find that chromosomes are organized into multiple levels of interacting domains Our results define a global view of EP interactions and

    Original URL path: http://www.cell-research.com/arts.asp?id=197 (2016-02-14)
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  • Cell Research
    Zhang 1 and Ke Zen 1 1 Jiangsu Engineering Research Center for microRNA Biology and Biotechnology State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology School of Life Sciences Nanjing University 22 Hankou Road Nanjing 210093 China 2 Marine Biology Lab School of Life Sciences Nanjing University 22 Hankou Road Nanjing 210093 China 3 Current address Department of Physiology and Pharmacology University of Georgia Athens GA 30084 USA Correspondence Ke Zen Chen Yu Zhang Junyuan Chen E mail kzen nju edu cn cyzhang nju edu cn chenjunyuan 163 net MicroRNAs miRNAs are endogenous noncoding RNAs 22 nt that regulate target gene expression at the post transcriptional level in the cytoplasm Recent discoveries of the presence of miRNAs and miRNA function required argonaute family proteins in the cell nucleus have prompted us to hypothesize that miRNAs may also have regulatory functions in the cell nucleus In this study we demonstrate that mouse miR 709 is predominantly located in the nucleus of various cell types and that its nuclear localization pattern rapidly changes upon apoptotic stimuli In the cell nucleus miR 709 directly binds to a 19 nt miR 709 recognition element on pri miR 15a 16 1 and prevents its processing into pre miR

    Original URL path: http://www.cell-research.com/arts.asp?id=198 (2016-02-14)
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  • Cell Research
    Kaiji Fan 1 Dawei Zhan 3 Lagabaiyila Zha 1 State Key Laboratory of Proteomics Genetic Laboratory of Development and Diseases Institute of Biotechnology 20 Dongdajie Beijing 100071 China 2 Institute of Vascular Medicine Peking University Third Hospital and Key Laboratory of Molecular Cardiovascular Sciences Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Molecular Biology and Regulatory Peptides Ministry of Health Beijing 100191 China 3 The First Hospital Affiliated to the Chinese PLA General Hospital Beijing 100048 China 4 Model Organism Division E institutes of Shanghai Universities Shanghai Jiao Tong University Shanghai 200240 China Correspondence Xiao Yang Tel 86 10 63895937 E mail yangx nic bmi ac cn Recent studies have begun to reveal critical roles of microRNAs miRNAs in the pathogenesis of cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction In this study we tested whether a transforming growth factor β TGF β regulated miRNA played a pivotal role in the development of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure HF We observed that miR 27b was upregulated in hearts of cardiomyocyte specific Smad4 knockout mice which developed cardiac hypertrophy In vitro experiments showed that the miR 27b expression could be inhibited by TGF β1 and that its overexpression promoted hypertrophic cell growth while the miR 27b suppression led to inhibition of the hypertrophic cell growth caused by phenylephrine PE treatment Furthermore the analysis of transgenic mice with cardiomyocyte specific overexpression of miR 27b revealed that miR 27b overexpression was sufficient to induce cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction We validated the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ PPAR γ as a direct target of miR 27b in cardiomyocyte Consistently the miR 27b transgenic mice displayed significantly lower levels of PPAR γ than the control mice Furthermore in vivo silencing of miR 27b using a specific antagomir in a pressure overload induced mouse model of HF increased cardiac PPAR γ

    Original URL path: http://www.cell-research.com/arts.asp?id=199 (2016-02-14)
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  • Cell Research
    Zou 1 Yiwu Yan 1 Wei Wang 1 Chen Wang 1 Zho 1 State Key Laboratory of Medical Molecular Biology Institute of Basic Medical Sciences Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences Center of Translational Medicine Peking Union Medical College Tsinghua University Beijing 100005 China 2 State Key Laboratory of Pathogens and Biosecurity Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology Beijing 100071 China 3 Department of Infectious Diseases Peking Union Medical College Hospital Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences Peking Union Medical College Beijing 100730 China 4 Beijing Chao Yang Hospital Beijing Institute of Respiratory Medicine Capital Medical University Beijing 100020 China 5 Emergency Department Peking Union Medical College Hospital Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences Peking Union Medical College Beijing 100730 China 6 State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology College of Life Sciences Nankai University Tianjin 300071 China Correspondence Chengyu Jiang Xiliang Wang Tel 86 10 65296908 E mail jiang pumc edu cn xiliangw 126 com The 2009 flu pandemic involved the emergence of a new strain of a swine origin H1N1 influenza virus S OIV H1N1 that infected almost every country in the world Most infections resulted in respiratory illness and some severe cases resulted in acute lung injury In this report we are the first to describe a mouse model of S OIV virus infection with acute lung injury and immune responses that reflect human clinical disease The clinical efficacy of the antiviral oseltamivir Tamiflu administered in the early stages of S OIV H1N1 infection was confirmed in the mouse model Moreover elevated levels of IL 17 Th 17 mediators and IL 17 responsive cytokines were found in serum samples of S OIV infected patients in Beijing IL 17 deficiency or treatment with monoclonal antibodies against IL 17 ameliorated acute lung injury induced by the S OIV H1N1 virus in mice

    Original URL path: http://www.cell-research.com/arts.asp?id=200 (2016-02-14)
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