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  • Cell Research
    Lan Bao 1 1 State Key Laboratory of Cell Biology Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences Chinese Academy of Sciences Shanghai 200031 China 2 Department of Neurosciences School of Medicine University of California San Diego La Jolla Ca 92093 USA 3 National Center of Nanoscience and Technology Beijing 100190 China 4 Institute of Neuroscience and State Key Laboratory of Neuroscience Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences Chinese Academy of Sciences Shanghai 200031 China Correspondence Lan Bao Tel 86 21 54921369 E mail baolan sibs ac cn Neurotrophins and their receptors adopt signaling endosomes to transmit retrograde signals However the mechanisms of retrograde signaling for other ligand receptor systems are poorly understood Here we report that the signals of the purinergic P 2X 3 receptor an ATP gated ion channel are retrogradely transported in dorsal root ganglion DRG neuron axons We found that Rab5 a small GTPase controls the early sorting of P2X 3 receptors into endosomes while Rab7 mediates the fast retrograde transport of P2X 3 receptors Intraplantar injection and axonal application into the microfluidic chamber of α β methylene ATP α β MeATP a P2X selective agonist enhanced the endocytosis and retrograde transport of P2X 3 receptors The α β MeATP induced Ca 2 influx activated a pathway comprised of protein kinase C rat sarcoma viral oncogene and extracellular signal regulated protein kinase ERK which associated with endocytic P2X 3 receptors to form signaling endosomes Disruption of the lipid rafts abolished the α β MeATP induced ERK phosphorylation endocytosis and retrograde transport of P2X 3 receptors Furthermore treatment of peripheral axons with α β MeATP increased the activation level of ERK and cAMP response element binding protein in the cell bodies of DRG neurons and enhanced neuronal excitability Impairment of either microtubule based axonal transport

    Original URL path: http://www.cell-research.com/arts.asp?id=182 (2016-02-14)
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  • Cell Research
    730000 China Correspondence Yaobo Liu Tel 86 10 64888559 815 E mail liuyaobo sun5 ibp ac cn Relatively little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying spatial pathfinding in the descending serotonergic raphespinal tract RST in the developing spinal cord one of the most important nerve pathways for pain sensory and motor functions We provide evidence that ventral floor plate secreted Sonic hedgehog Shh is responsible for the establishment of decreasing gradients in both the anterior to posterior A P and the medial to lateral M L directions in the ventral spinal cord during serotonergic RST axon projection Downstream components of the Shh pathway Patched 1 Ptch1 and Smoothened Smo were expressed in the serotonergic caudal raphe nuclei and enriched in the descending serotonergic RST axons Diffusible Shh repulsion of serotonergic RST axons was shown to be mediated by Shh Ptch1 interactions and derepression of Smo Using a co culture assay we showed that A P graded repulsion mediated by Shh signaling pushed the serotonergic axons caudally through the ventral spinal cord and M L graded repulsion mediated by Shh signaling simultaneously restricted the serotonergic axons to the ventral and ventral lateral funiculus Prominent pathfinding errors of serotonergic RST axons

    Original URL path: http://www.cell-research.com/arts.asp?id=183 (2016-02-14)
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  • Cell Research
    Zhengfan Jiang State Key Laboratory of Protein and Plant Gene Research Key Laboratory of Cell Proliferation and Differentiation of the Ministry of Education School of Life Sciences Peking University Beijing 100871 China Peking University Tsinghua University Joint Center for Life Sciences Beijing China Correspondence Zhengfan Jiang Tel 86 10 62757923 E mail jiangzf pku edu cn Mitochondrial antiviral signaling MAVS is a key adaptor in cellular antiviral innate immunity We previously identified poly C binding protein 2 PCBP2 as a feedback inhibitor of MAVS that facilitates its degradation after viral infection but little is known about the regulatory potential of poly C binding protein 1 PCBP1 which highly resembles PCBP2 Here we report that PCBP1 mediates housekeeping degradation of MAVS using the same mechanism as PCBP2 employs Overexpression of PCBP1 impairs MAVS mediated antiviral responses while knockdown of PCBP1 exerts the opposite effect The suppression is due to PCBP1 induced MAVS degradation We observe that PCBP1 and PCBP2 show synergy in MAVS inhibition but their expression patterns are distinct PCBP1 is stably and abundantly expressed while PCBP2 shows low basal expression with rapid induction after infection Individual knockdown and subcellular fractionation analyses reveal that unlike the postinfection inhibitor PCBP2 PCBP1

    Original URL path: http://www.cell-research.com/arts.asp?id=184 (2016-02-14)
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  • Cell Research
    INF 324 69120 Heidelberg Germany 2 Institute of Pharmacology Biochemical Pharmacological Center University of Marburg Karl von Frisch Strasse 1 35032 Marburg Germany 3 Department of Infectious Diseases Molecular Virology University Hospital Heidelberg INF 345 69120 Heidelberg Germany Correspondence Oliver T Fackler Tel 49 06221 561322 E mail oliver fackler med uni heidelberg de Plasma membrane PM blebs are dynamic actin rich cell protrusions that occur e g during cytokinesis amoeboid cell motility and cell attachment Using a targeted siRNA screen against 21 actin nucleation factors we identify a novel and essential role of the human diaphanous formin DIAPH3 in PM blebbing during cell adhesion Suppression of DIAPH3 inhibited blebbing to promote rapid cell spreading involving β1 integrin Multiple isoforms of DIAPH3 were detected on the mRNA and protein level of which isoforms 3 and 7 were the largest and most abundant isoforms that however did not induce formation of actin rich protrusions Rather PM blebbing specifically involved the low abundance isoform 1 of DIAPH3 and activation of isoform 7 by deletion of the diaphanous autoregulatory domain caused the formation of filopodia Dimerization and actin assembly activity were essential for induction of specific cell protrusions by DIAPH3 isoforms 1 and

    Original URL path: http://www.cell-research.com/arts.asp?id=185 (2016-02-14)
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  • Cell Research
    2 Ying Han 1 2 Yuzhe Shi 1 Hui Rong 2 Songyang Zheng 2 Shikan Jin 1 Shu Yong Lin 1 Sheng Cai Lin 1 and Yong Li 1 2 1 State Key Laboratory for Cellular Stress Biology School of Life Sciences Xiamen University Fujian 361005 China 2 Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences Center for Pharmacogenetics University of Pittsburgh Pittsburgh PA 15261 USA Correspondence Yong Li Sheng Cai Lin E mail yongli xmu edu cn linsc xmu edu cn Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma PPARγ regulates metabolic homeostasis and is a molecular target for anti diabetic drugs We report here the identification of a steroid receptor ligand RU 486 as an unexpected PPARγ agonist thereby uncovering a novel signaling route for this steroid drug Similar to rosiglitazone RU 486 modulates the expression of key PPARγ target genes and promotes adipocyte differentiation but with a lower adipogenic activity Structural and functional studies of receptor ligand interactions reveal the molecular basis for a unique binding mode for RU 486 in the PPARγ ligand binding pocket with distinctive properties and epitopes providing the molecular mechanisms for the discrimination of RU 486 from thiazolidinediones TZDs drugs Our findings together indicate that steroid compounds may represent

    Original URL path: http://www.cell-research.com/arts.asp?id=186 (2016-02-14)
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  • Cell Research
    Yale University School of Medicine New Haven CT 06520 8005 USA 3 Genetics Division Biomedical Research Foundation of the Academy of Athens Greece BRFAA Athens 11527 Greece 4 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology University of South Florida College of Medicine Tampa FL 33612 USA 5 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology New York University Langone Medical Center NY 10016 USA Correspondence Lin Liu Tel 86 22 23500752 E mail liulin nankai edu cn liutelom yahoo com Rejuvenation of telomeres with various lengths has been found in induced pluripotent stem cells iPSCs Mechanisms of telomere length regulation during induction and proliferation of iPSCs remain elusive We show that telomere dynamics are variable in mouse iPSCs during reprogramming and passage and suggest that these differences likely result from multiple potential factors including the telomerase machinery telomerase independent mechanisms and clonal influences including reexpression of exogenous reprogramming factors Using a genetic model of telomerase deficient Terc and Terc cells for derivation and passages of iPSCs we found that telomerase plays a critical role in reprogramming and self renewal of iPSCs Further telomerase maintenance of telomeres is necessary for induction of true pluripotency while the alternative pathway of elongation and maintenance by recombination is also

    Original URL path: http://www.cell-research.com/arts.asp?id=187 (2016-02-14)
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  • Cell Research
    776 Endogenously produced FGF2 is essential for the survival and proliferation of cultured mouse spermatogonial stem cells Yan Zhang 1 Si Wang 1 2 Xiuxia Wang 1 Shangying Liao 1 Yujian Wu 1 2 and Chunsheng Han 1 sup 1 State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Biology Institute of Zoology Chinese Academy of Sciences Beijing 100101 China 2 Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences Beijing 100049 China Correspondence Chunsheng Han

    Original URL path: http://www.cell-research.com/arts.asp?id=189 (2016-02-14)
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  • Cell Research
    Mehmet Ali Keçeli 1 Maria Piisilä 1 Jing F Li 1 Mantas Survila 1 Pekka Heino 1 Günter Brader 1 2 E Tapio Palva 1 and Ji 1 Howard Hughes Medical Institute University of Michigan Medical School 1150 W Medical Center Drive Ann Arbor MI 48109 USA 2 Department of Biological Chemistry University of Michigan Medical School 1150 W Medical Center Drive Ann Arbor MI 48109 USA 3 Department of

    Original URL path: http://www.cell-research.com/arts.asp?id=190 (2016-02-14)
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