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  • Cell Research
    Villion and Sylvain Moineau Département de Biochimie de Microbiologie et de Bio informatique Faculté des Sciences et de Génie Groupe de Recherche en Écologie Buccale Faculté de Médecine Dentaire Félix d Hérelle Reference Center for Bacterial Viruses Université Laval Québec City Quebec G1V 0A6 Canada Correspondence Sylvain Moineau Tel 1 418 656 3712 E mail Sylvain Moineau bcm ulaval ca A recent paper gives the details on how specific small

    Original URL path: http://www.cell-research.com/arts.asp?id=52 (2016-02-14)
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  • Cell Research
    1 Inserm U1091 Nice F 06108 France 2 CNRS UMR7277 F 06108 France 3 University of Nice Sophia Antipolis UFR Sciences Nice F 06108 France Correspondence Minoo Rassoulzadegan E mail minoo unice fr Transcriptionally silent sperm contains a variety of RNA fragments of both coding and non coding transcripts A recent article by Peng and colleagues reveals several new families of small RNAs enriched in sperm which are derived from

    Original URL path: http://www.cell-research.com/arts.asp?id=53 (2016-02-14)
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  • Cell Research
    Singapore 3 Department of Biochemistry Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine National University of Singapore 8 Medical Drive Singapore 117597 Singapore 4 Department of Biological Sciences National University of Singapore Singapore 117543 Singapore 5 NUS Graduate School for Integrative Sciences and Engineering National University of Singapore Singapore 117456 Singapore Correspondence Huck Hui NG E mail nghh gis a star edu sg The defining features of embryonic stem cells ESCs are their self renewing and pluripotent capacities Indeed the ability to give rise into all cell types within the organism not only allows ESCs to function as an ideal in vitro tool to study embryonic development but also offers great therapeutic potential within the field of regenerative medicine However it is also this same remarkable developmental plasticity that makes the efficient control of ESC differentiation into the desired cell type very difficult Therefore in order to harness ESCs for clinical applications a detailed understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms controlling ESC pluripotency and lineage commitment is necessary In this respect through a variety of transcriptomic approaches ESC pluripotency has been found to be regulated by a system of ESC associated transcription factors and the external signalling environment also acts as

    Original URL path: http://www.cell-research.com/arts.asp?id=54 (2016-02-14)
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  • Cell Research
    1 2 3 and George Q Daley 1 2 3 1 Stem Cell Transplantation Program Division of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology Manton Center for Orphan Disease Research Howard Hughes Medical Institute Children s Hospital Boston and Dana Farber Cancer Institute Boston MA USA 2 Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology Harvard Medical School Boston MA USA 3 Harvard Stem Cell Institute Cambridge MA USA Correspondence George Q Daley E mail george daley childrens harvard edu Human diseases such as heart failure diabetes neurodegenerative disorders and many others result from the deficiency or dysfunction of critical cell types Strategies for therapeutic tissue repair or regeneration require the in vitro manufacture of clinically relevant quantities of defined cell types In addition to transplantation therapy the generation of otherwise inaccessible cells also permits disease modeling toxicology testing and drug discovery in vitro In this review we discuss current strategies to manipulate the identity of abundant and accessible cells by differentiation from an induced pluripotent state or direct conversion between differentiated states We contrast these approaches with recent advances employing partial reprogramming to facilitate lineage switching and discuss the mechanisms underlying the engineering of cell fate Finally we address the current limitations of

    Original URL path: http://www.cell-research.com/arts.asp?id=55 (2016-02-14)
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  • Cell Research
    Embryonic stem cell and induced pluripotent stem cell an epigenetic perspective Gaoyang Liang 1 2 3 and Yi Zhang 1 2 3 4 5 1 Howard Hughes Medical Institute Harvard Medical School WAB 149G 200 Longwood Avenue Boston MA 02115 USA 2 Program in Cellular and Molecular Medicine Boston Children s Hospital Harvard Medical School WAB 149G 200 Longwood Avenue Boston MA 02115 USA 3 Department of Genetics Harvard Medical School WAB 149G 200 Longwood Avenue Boston MA 02115 USA 4 Department of Pediatrics Harvard Medical School WAB 149G 200 Longwood Avenue Boston MA 02115 USA 5 Harvard Stem Cell Institute Harvard Medical School WAB 149G 200 Longwood Avenue Boston MA 02115 USA Correspondence Yi Zhang E mail yzhang genetics med harvard edu Pluripotent stem cells like embryonic stem cells ESCs have specialized epigenetic landscapes which are important for pluripotency maintenance Transcription factor mediated generation of induced pluripotent stem cells iPSCs requires global change of somatic cell epigenetic status into an ESC like state Accumulating evidence indicates that epigenetic mechanisms not only play important roles in the iPSC generation process but also affect the properties of reprogrammed iPSCs Understanding the roles of various epigenetic factors in iPSC generation contributes to

    Original URL path: http://www.cell-research.com/arts.asp?id=56 (2016-02-14)
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  • Cell Research
    80 Cell transplantation therapies for spinal cord injury focusing on induced pluripotent stem cells Masaya Nakamura 1 and Hideyuki Okano 2 1 Department of Orthopedics School of Medicine Keio University 35 Shinanomachi Shinjuku Tokyo 1608582 Japan 2 Department of Physiology School of Medicine Keio University 35 Shinanomachi Shinjuku Tokyo 1608582 Japan Correspondence Hideyuki Okano Tel 81 3 5363 3746 E mail hidokano a2 keio jp Stimulated by the 2012 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine awarded for Shinya Yamanaka and Sir John Gurdon there is an increasing interest in the induced pluripotent stem iPS cells and reprograming technologies in medical science While iPS cells are expected to open a new era providing enormous opportunities in biomedical sciences in terms of cell therapies and regenerative medicine safety related concerns for iPS cell based cell therapy should be resolved prior to the clinical application of iPS cells In this review the pre clinical investigations of cell therapy for spinal cord injury SCI using neural stem progenitor cells derived from iPS cells and their safety issues in vivo are outlined We also wish to discuss the strategy for the first human trails of iPS cell based cell therapy for SCI patients Cell Research

    Original URL path: http://www.cell-research.com/arts.asp?id=57 (2016-02-14)
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  • Cell Research
    Wei 3 Yan Shi 4 and Sheng Ding 2 1 Department of Cell Biology Second Military Medical University Shanghai 200433 China 2 Gladstone Institute of Cardiovascular Disease University of California San Francisco CA 94158 USA 3 Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine Center Shanghai Advanced Research Institute Chinese Academy of Science Shanghai 201210 China 4 Laboratory of Chemical Genomics School of Chemical Biology and Biotechnology Shenzhen Graduate School of Peking University Shenzhen Guangdong 518055 China Correspondence Sheng Ding Tel 415 734 2717 E mail sheng ding gladstone ucsf edu Stem cells including both pluripotent stem cells and multipotent somatic stem cells hold great potential for interrogating the mechanisms of tissue development homeostasis and pathology and for treating numerous devastating diseases Establishment of in vitro platforms to faithfully maintain and precisely manipulate stem cell fates is essential to understand the basic mechanisms of stem cell biology and to translate stem cells into regenerative medicine Chemical approaches have recently provided a number of small molecules that can be used to control cell self renewal lineage differentiation reprogramming and regeneration These chemical modulators have been proven to be versatile tools for probing stem cell biology and manipulating cell fates toward desired outcomes Ultimately this

    Original URL path: http://www.cell-research.com/arts.asp?id=58 (2016-02-14)
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  • Cell Research
    2 and Jinso 1 Group of Epigenetic Reprogramming State Key Laboratory of Cell Biology Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences Chinese Academy of Sciences Shanghai 200031 China 2 State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology Department of Cell Biology and Genetics College of Life Sciences Nankai University Tianjin 300071 China 3 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology University of South Florida College of Medicine Tampa FL 33612 USA Correspondence Jinsong Li Lin Liu Tel 86 21 5492 1422 E mail jsli sibcb ac cn liutelom yahoo com Induced pluripotent stem iPS cells generated using Yamanaka factors have great potential for use in autologous cell therapy However genomic abnormalities exist in human iPS cells and most mouse iPS cells are not fully pluripotent as evaluated by the tetraploid complementation assay TCA this is most likely associated with the DNA damage response DDR occurred in early reprogramming induced by Yamanaka factors In contrast nuclear transfer can faithfully reprogram somatic cells into embryonic stem ES cells that satisfy the TCA We thus hypothesized that factors involved in oocyte induced reprogramming may stabilize the somatic genome during reprogramming and improve the quality of the resultant iPS cells To test this hypothesis we screened for factors that could decrease DDR signals during iPS cell induction We determined that Zscan4 in combination with the Yamanaka factors not only remarkably reduced the DDR but also markedly promoted the efficiency of iPS cell generation The inclusion of Zscan4 stabilized the genomic DNA resulting in p53 downregulation Furthermore Zscan4 also enhanced telomere lengthening as early as 3 days post infection through a telomere recombination based mechanism As a result iPS cells generated with addition of Zscan4 exhibited longer telomeres than classical iPS cells Strikingly more than 50 of iPS cell lines 11 19 produced via

    Original URL path: http://www.cell-research.com/arts.asp?id=59 (2016-02-14)
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