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  • Cell Research
    Li 1 2 3 1 Graduate Center for Toxicology University of Kentucky College of Medicine Lexington KY 40536 USA 2 Graduate Center for Nutritional Sciences University of Kentucky College of Medicine Lexington KY 40536 USA 3 Markey Cancer Center University of Kentucky College of Medicine Lexington KY 40536 USA Correspondence Liya Gu E mail lgu0 uky edu MicroRNAs miRNAs are critical post transcriptional regulators and are derived from hairpin shaped primary transcripts via a series of processing steps However how the production of individual miRNAs is regulated remains largely unknown Similarly loss or overexpression of the key mismatch repair protein MutLα MLH1 PMS2 heterodimer leads to genome instability and tumorigenesis but the mechanisms controlling MutLα expression are unknown Here we demonstrate in vitro and in vivo that MLH1 and miR 422a participate in a feedback loop that regulates the level of both molecules Using a defined in vitro miRNA processing system we show that MutLα stimulates the conversion of pri miR 422a to pre miR 422a as well as the processing of other miRNAs tested implicating MutLα as a general stimulating factor for miRNA biogenesis This newly identified MutLα function requires its ATPase and pri miRNA binding activities In contrast

    Original URL path: http://www.cell-research.com/arts.asp?id=224 (2016-02-14)
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  • Cell Research
    Cancer Epigenetics Laboratory Instituto Universitario de Oncología del Principado de Asturias HUCA Universidad de Oviedo 33006 Oviedo Spain 3 Department of Immunology and Oncology Centro Nacional de Biotecnolog韆 CNB CSIC Cantoblanco 28049 Madrid Spain 4 Centro de Investigaci髇 Principe Felipe Valencia Spain Correspondence Clara Bueno Pablo Menendez Tel 34 958 71 55 00 ext 136 E mail clara bueno genyo es pablo menendez genyo es The MLL AF4 fusion gene is a hallmark genomic aberration in high risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia in infants Although it is well established that MLL AF4 arises prenatally during human development its effects on hematopoietic development in utero remain unexplored We have created a human specific cellular system to study early hemato endothelial development in MLL AF4 expressing human embryonic stem cells hESCs Functional studies clonal analysis and gene expression profiling reveal that expression of MLL AF4 in hESCs has a phenotypic functional and gene expression impact MLL AF4 acts as a global transcriptional activator and a positive regulator of homeobox gene expression in hESCs Functionally MLL AF4 enhances the specification of hemogenic precursors from hESCs but strongly impairs further hematopoietic commitment in favor of an endothelial cell fate MLL AF4 hESCs are transcriptionally primed

    Original URL path: http://www.cell-research.com/arts.asp?id=150 (2016-02-14)
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  • Cell Research
    breast cancer cells through macrophage migration inhibitory factor Mei Yi Wu 1 Junjiang Fu 2 Jianming Xu 3 Bert W O Malley 3 and Ray Chang Wu 1 3 1 Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology George Washington University Washington DC 20037 USA 2 The Research Center for Preclinical Medicine Luzhou Medical College Luzhou City Sichuan 646000 China 3 Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology Baylor College of Medicine Houston TX 77030 USA Correspondence Mei Yi Wu Tel 1 202 9941841 E mail bcmmxw gwumc edu SRC 3 AIB1 steroid receptor coactivator 3 amplified in breast cancer 1 is an authentic oncogene that contributes to the development of drug resistance and poor disease free survival in cancer patients Autophagy is also an important cell death mechanism that has tumor suppressor function In this study we identified macrophage migration inhibitory factor MIF as a novel target gene of SRC 3 and demonstrated its importance in cell survival Specifically we showed that MIF is a strong suppressor of autophagic cell death We further showed that suppression of MIF in turn induced autophagic cell death enhanced chemosensitivity and inhibited tumorigenesis in a xenograft mouse tumorigenesis model Our study demonstrated that regulation of MIF

    Original URL path: http://www.cell-research.com/arts.asp?id=237 (2016-02-14)
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  • Cell Research
    Department of Neurobiology Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology of the Ministry of Health of China Key Laboratory of Neurobiology of Zhejiang Province Zhejiang University School of Medicine Hangzhou Zhejiang 310058 China 3 Huazhong University of Science and Technology Wuhan Hubei 430030 Chi Correspondence Shumin Duan Tel 86 571 88208001 E mail duanshumin zju edu cn Microglia are highly motile cells that act as the main form of active immune defense in the central nervous system Attracted by factors released from damaged cells microglia are recruited towards the damaged or infected site where they are involved in degenerative and regenerative responses and phagocytotic clearance of cell debris ATP release from damaged neural tissues has been suggested to mediate the rapid extension of microglial process towards the site of injury However the mechanisms of the long range migration of microglia remain to be clarified Here we found that lysosomes in microglia contain abundant ATP and exhibit Ca 2 dependent exocytosis in response to various stimuli By establishing an efficient in vitro chemotaxis assay we demonstrated that endogenously released ATP from microglia triggered by local microinjection of ATPγS is critical for the long range chemotaxis of microglia a response that was significantly inhibited

    Original URL path: http://www.cell-research.com/arts.asp?id=151 (2016-02-14)
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  • Cell Research
    Pavillon Comtois Facult des sciences de l agriculture et de l alimentation Universit Laval Qu閎ec Canada G1V 0A6 3 Department of Biology McGill University 1205 avenue Doctor Penfield Montr閍l QC Canada H3A 1B1 Correspondence Jean Yves Masson Martin J Simard E mail Jean Yves Masson crhdq ulaval ca Martin Simard crhdq ulaval ca The discovery of the miRNA pathway revealed a new layer of molecular control of biological processes To uncover new functions of this gene regulatory pathway we undertook the characterization of the two miRNA specific Argonaute proteins in Caenorhabditis elegans ALG 1 and ALG 2 We first observed that the loss of function of alg 1 and alg 2 genes resulted in reduced progeny number An extensive analysis of the germline of these mutants revealed a reduced mitotic region indicating fewer proliferating germ cells We also observed an early entry into meiosis in alg 1 and alg 2 mutant animals We detected ALG 1 and ALG 2 protein expressions in the distal tip cell DTC a specialized cell located at the tip of both C elegans gonadal arms that regulates mitosis meiosis transition Re establishing the expression of alg 1 specifically in the DTC of mutant animals partially

    Original URL path: http://www.cell-research.com/arts.asp?id=152 (2016-02-14)
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  • Cell Research
    Environmental Science in Guangdong Higher Education School of Life Science South China Normal University Guangzhou Guangdong 510631 China 2 College of Life Science and Technology Jinan University Guangzhou Guangdong 510632 China 3 State Key Laboratory of Agrobiotechnology and School of Life Sciences The Chinese University of Hong Kong Shatin New Territories Hong Kong SAR China Correspondence Jun Xian He Shao Shan Li E mail jxhe cuhk edu hk lishsh scnu edu cn UV B 280 315 nm is an integral part of solar radiation and can act either as a stress inducer or as a developmental signal In recent years increasing attention has been paid to the low fluence UV B induced photomorphogenic response and several key players in this response have been identified which include UVR8 a UV B specific photoreceptor COP1 a WD40 repeat containing RING finger protein HY5 a basic zipper transcription factor and RUP1 2 two UVR8 interacting proteins Here we report that Arabidopsis SALT TOLERANCE STO BBX24 a known regulator for light signaling in plants defines a new signaling component in UV B mediated photomorphogenesis The bbx24 mutant is hypersensitive to UV B radiation and becomes extremely dwarfed under UV B treatment By contrast BBX24 overexpression transgenic lines respond much more weakly to UV B than the bbx24 and wild type plants BBX24 expression is UV B inducible and its accumulation under UV B requires COP1 Co immunoprecipitation experiments indicate that BBX24 interacts with COP1 in planta upon UV B illumination Moreover BBX24 interacts with HY5 and acts antagonistically with HY5 in UV B induced inhibition of hypocotyl elongation Furthermore BBX24 attenuates UV B induced HY5 accumulation and suppresses its transcription activation activity Taken together our results reveal a previously uncharacterized function of the light regulated BBX24 in UV B responses and demonstrate that BBX24

    Original URL path: http://www.cell-research.com/arts.asp?id=153 (2016-02-14)
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  • Cell Research
    Heverlee Belgium 3 Protein Phosphorylation and Proteomics Laboratory Department of Molecular Cell Biology Faculty of Medicine KULeuven B 3000 Leuven Flanders Belgium 4 Current address Okapi Sciences NV Ambachtenlaan 1 B 3001 Leuven Heverlee Belgium 5 Current address Johnson Johnson Turnhoutseweg 30 B 2340 Beerse Belgium Correspondence Johan M Thevelein Tel 32 16 321507 32 16 321500 E mail johan thevelein mmbio vib kuleuven be The protein phosphatases PP2A and PP1 are major regulators of a variety of cellular processes in yeast and other eukaryotes Here we reveal that both enzymes are direct targets of glucose sensing Addition of glucose to glucose deprived yeast cells triggered rapid posttranslational activation of both PP2A and PP1 Glucose activation of PP2A is controlled by regulatory subunits Rts1 Cdc55 Rrd1 and Rrd2 It is associated with rapid carboxymethylation of the catalytic subunits which is necessary but not sufficient for activation Glucose activation of PP1 was fully dependent on regulatory subunits Reg1 and Shp1 Absence of Gac1 Glc8 Reg2 or Red1 partially reduced activation while Pig1 and Pig2 inhibited activation Full activation of PP2A and PP1 was also dependent on subunits classically considered to belong to the other phosphatase PP2A activation was dependent on PP1 subunits Reg1 and Shp1 while PP1 activation was dependent on PP2A subunit Rts1 Rts1 interacted with both Pph21 and Glc7 under different conditions and these interactions were Reg1 dependent Reg1 Glc7 interaction is responsible for PP1 involvement in the main glucose repression pathway and we show that deletion of Shp1 also causes strong derepression of the invertase gene SUC2 Deletion of the PP2A subunits Pph21 and Pph22 Rrd1 and Rrd2 specifically enhanced the derepression level of SUC2 indicating that PP2A counteracts SUC2 derepression Interestingly the effect of the regulatory subunit Rts1 was consistent with its role as a subunit of

    Original URL path: http://www.cell-research.com/arts.asp?id=154 (2016-02-14)
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  • Cell Research
    specific lethal complex Jing Huang 1 2 Bingbing Wan 1 2 Lipeng Wu 3 Yuting Yang 2 Yali Dou 2 3 and Ming Lei 1 2 1 Howard Hughes Medical Institute University of Michigan Medical School 1150 W Medical Center Drive Ann Arbor MI 48109 USA 2 Department of Biological Chemistry University of Michigan Medical School 1150 W Medical Center Drive Ann Arbor MI 48109 USA 3 Department of Pathology

    Original URL path: http://www.cell-research.com/arts.asp?id=155 (2016-02-14)
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