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  • Cell Research
    Life Sciences and Technology Tongji University Shanghai 200092 China 2 State Key Laboratory of Drug Research the National Center for Drug Screening Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica Chinese Academy of Sciences 189 Guo Shou Jing Road Pudong New District Shanghai 201203 China Correspondence Xin Xie Tel 86 21 50801313 ext 156 E mail xxie mail shcnc ac cn G protein coupled receptors GPCRs mediate most of our physiological responses to hormones neurotransmitters and environmental stimulants They are considered as the most successful therapeutic targets for a broad spectrum of diseases Multiple sclerosis MS is an inflammatory disease that is characterized by immune mediated demyelination and degeneration of the central nervous system CNS It is the leading cause of non traumatic disability in young adults Great progress has been made over the past few decades in understanding the pathogenesis of MS Numerous data from animal and clinical studies indicate that many GPCRs are critically involved in various aspects of MS pathogenesis including antigen presentation cytokine production T cell differentiation T cell proliferation T cell invasion etc In this review we summarize the recent findings regarding the expression or functional changes of GPCRs in MS patients or animal models and the influences

    Original URL path: http://www.cell-research.com/arts.asp?id=137 (2016-02-14)
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  • Cell Research
    Bao Tae Whan Kim Valeria Facchinetti Shino Hanabuchi Laura Bover Tomasz Zal and Yong Jun Liu Department of Immunology Center for Cancer Immunology Research University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center Houston TX 77030 USA Correspondence Yong Jun Liu Tel 1 713 563 3203 E mail yjliu mdanderson org Toll like receptor 9 TLR9 senses microbial DNA in the endosomes of plasmacytoid dendritic cells pDCs and triggers MyD88 dependent type I interferon IFN responses To better understand TLR9 biology in pDCs we established a yeast two hybrid library for the identification of TLR9 interacting proteins Here we report that an IFN inducible protein phospholipid scramblase 1 PLSCR1 interacts with TLR9 in pDCs Knockdown of PLSCR1 expression by siRNA in human pDC cell line led to a 60 70 reduction of IFN α responses following CpG ODN oligodeoxynucleotide stimulation Primary pDCs from PLSCR1 deficient mice produced lower amount of type 1 IFN than pDCs from the wild type mice in response to CpG ODN herpes simplex virus and influenza A virus Following CpG A stimulation there were much lower amounts of TLR9 in the early endosomes together with CpG A in pDCs from PLSCR1 deficient mice Our study demonstrates that PLSCR1

    Original URL path: http://www.cell-research.com/arts.asp?id=138 (2016-02-14)
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  • Cell Research
    of Cell Biology Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences Chinese Academy of Sciences 320 Yue Yang Road Shanghai 200031 China Correspondence Xueliang Zhu Tel 86 21 54921406 E mail xlzhu sibs ac cn The Gβγ heterodimer is an important signal transducer Gβ however is prone to misfolding due to its requirement for Gγ and chaperones for proper folding How cells dispose of misfolded Gβ mfGβ is not clear Here we showed that mfGβ was able to be polyubiquitinated and subsequently degraded by the proteasome It was sequestered in aggresomes after the inhibition of the proteasome activity with MG132 Sustained activation of Gβγ signaling further elevated cellular levels of the ubiquitinated Gβ Moreover Nudel a regulator of cytoplasmic dynein the microtubule minus end directed motor directly interacted with both the unubiquitinated and ubiquitinated mfGβ Increasing the levels of both mfGβ and Nudel promoted the association of Gβ with both Nudel and dynein resulting in robust aggresome formation in a dynein dependent manner Depletion of Nudel by RNAi reduced the dynein associated mfGβ impaired the MG132 induced aggresome formation and markedly prolonged the half life of nascent Gβ Therefore cytosolic mfGβ is recruited to dynein by Nudel

    Original URL path: http://www.cell-research.com/arts.asp?id=139 (2016-02-14)
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  • Cell Research
    Oliver Batistič 1 Marion Rehers 1 Amir Akerman 2 Kathrin Schlücking 2 Leonie Steinhorst 1 Shaul Yalovsky 2 and Jörg Kudla 1 1 Institut f黵 Biologie und Biotechnologie der Pflanzen Universit鋞 Münster Schlossplatz 4 M黱ster 48149 Germany 2 Department of Molecular Biology and Ecology of Plants Tel Aviv University Ramat Aviv Tel Aviv 69978 Israel Correspondence J鰎g Kudla Tel 49 251 83 24813 E mail jkudla uni muenster de Calcineurin B like CBL proteins contribute to decoding calcium signals by interacting with CBL interacting protein kinases CIPKs Currently there is still very little information about the function and specific targeting mechanisms of CBL proteins that are localized at the vacuolar membrane In this study we focus on CBL2 an abundant vacuolar membrane localized calcium sensor of unknown function from Arabidopsis thaliana We show that vacuolar targeting of CBL2 is specifically brought about by S acylation of three cysteine residues in its N terminus and that CBL2 S acylation and targeting occur by a Brefeldin A insensitive pathway Loss of CBL2 function renders plants hypersensitive to the phytohormone abscisic acid ABA during seed germination and only fully S acylated and properly vacuolar targeted CBL2 proteins can complement this mutant phenotype These

    Original URL path: http://www.cell-research.com/arts.asp?id=140 (2016-02-14)
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  • Cell Research
    of Plant Molecular Physiology Institute of Botany Chinese Academy of Sciences Beijing 100093 China 2 National Center for Plant Gene Research Beijing 100101 China Correspondence Yuxin Hu Tel 86 10 62836650 E mail huyuxin ibcas ac cn The remarkable regeneration capability of plant tissues or organs under culture conditions has underlain an extensive practice for decades The initial step in plant in vitro regeneration often involves the induction of a pluripotent cell mass termed callus which is driven by the phytohormone auxin and occurs via a root development pathway However the key molecules governing callus formation remain unknown Here we demonstrate that Arabidopsis LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES DOMAIN LBD ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2 LIKE ASL transcription factors are involved in the control of callus formation program The four LBD genes downstream of AUXIN RESPONSE FACTORs ARFs LBD16 LBD17 LBD18 and LBD29 are rapidly and dramatically induced by callus inducing medium CIM in multiple organs Ectopic expression of each of the four LBD genes in Arabidopsis is sufficient to trigger spontaneous callus formation without exogenous phytohormones whereas suppression of LBD function inhibits the callus formation induced by CIM Moreover the callus triggered by LBD resembles that induced by CIM by characteristics of ectopically activated

    Original URL path: http://www.cell-research.com/arts.asp?id=141 (2016-02-14)
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  • Cell Research
    Armilla Granada Spain 2 IBIMER Universidad de Granada Granada Spain 3 CIBERED Hospital Universitario san Cecilio Granada Spain 4 Departamento de Ciencias Experimentales Universidad de Ja閚 Ja閚 Spain 5 CABIMER CSIC Sevilla Spain 6 Danish Cancer Society Institute of Cancer Biology Strandboulevarden 49 Copenhagen DK 2100 Denmark Correspondence F Javier Oliver Tel 34 958181655 E mail joliver ipb csic es In response to nutrient stress cells start an autophagy program that can lead to adaptation or death The mechanisms underlying the signaling from starvation to the initiation of autophagy are not fully understood In the current study we show that the absence or inactivation of PARP 1 strongly delays starvation induced autophagy We have found that DNA damage is an early event of starvation induced autophagy as measured by H2AX accumulation and comet assay with PARP 1 knockout cells displaying a reduction in both parameters During starvation ROS induced DNA damage activates PARP 1 leading to ATP depletion an early event after nutrient deprivation The absence of PARP 1 blunted AMPK activation and prevented the complete loss of mTOR activity leading to a delay in autophagy PARP 1 depletion favors apoptosis in starved cells suggesting a pro survival role of

    Original URL path: http://www.cell-research.com/arts.asp?id=142 (2016-02-14)
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  • Cell Research
    1 2 3 Xiao Hong He 1 2 3 Ru Ling Shen 4 Qing Cheng Wang 4 and Mo Fang Liu 1 2 3 1 State Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences Shanghai 200031 China 2 Shanghai Key Laboratory of Molecular Andrology Shanghai 200031 China 3 Center for RNA Research Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences Chinese Academy of

    Original URL path: http://www.cell-research.com/arts.asp?id=143 (2016-02-14)
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  • Cell Research
    Zhang 3 Zhongpei Hu 1 4 Zhijun Wang 2 Wenxian Lan 1 Fang Li 4 Houming Wu 1 Jianping Ding 3 1 State Key Laboratory of Bio organic and Natural Product Chemistry Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry Chinese Academy of Sciences 345 Lingling Road Shanghai 200032 China 2 Laboratory of Microbial Metabolism and School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology Shanghai Jiao Tong University Shanghai 200030 China 3 Institute of Biochemistry

    Original URL path: http://www.cell-research.com/arts.asp?id=144 (2016-02-14)
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