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  • Cell Research

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    Original URL path: /artsmore1.asp?id=193 (2016-02-14)


  • Cell Research
    Hou 2 Sheng Guang Liao 2 Hai Qiong Yang 1 Ying Chen 2 Shu Kun Gao 2 Yun Fa Ge 1 Chang Chang Cao 2 Peng Fei Li 2 Li Ming Fang 3 Li Liao 2 Shu Zhang 2 Meng Zhen Wang 1 Wei Dong 2 and Sheng Guo Fang 1 1 The Key Laboratory of Conservation Biology for Endangered Wildlife of the Ministry of Education State Conservation Center for Gene Resources of Endangered Wildlife College of Life Sciences Zhejiang University Hangzhou Zhejiang 310058 China 2 BGI Shenzhen Shenzhen Guangdong 518083 China 3 Changxing Yinjiabian Chinese Alligator Nature Reserve Changxing Zhejiang 313100 China Correspondence Sheng Guo Fang E mail sgfanglab zju edu cn Crocodilians are diving reptiles that can hold their breath under water for long periods of time and are crepuscular animals with excellent sensory abilities They comprise a sister lineage of birds and have no sex chromosome Here we report the genome sequence of the endangered Chinese alligator Alligator sinensis and describe its unique features The next generation sequencing generated 314 Gb of raw sequence yielding a genome size of 2 3 Gb A total of 22 200 genes were predicted in Alligator sinensis using a de novo homology and RNA based combined model The genetic basis of long diving behavior includes duplication of the bicarbonate binding hemoglobin gene co functioning of routine phosphate binding and special bicarbonate binding oxygen transport and positively selected energy metabolism ammonium bicarbonate excretion and cardiac muscle contraction Further we elucidated the robust Alligator sinensis sensory system including a significantly expanded olfactory receptor repertoire rapidly evolving nerve related cellular components and visual perception and positive selection of the night vision related opsin and sound detection associated otopetrin We also discovered a well developed immune system with a considerable number of lineage specific antigen

    Original URL path: http://www.cell-research.com/arts.asp?id=1811 (2016-02-14)
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  • Cell Research
    Jiang 2 Jue Wang 1 Lei Chen 1 Shi Long Fan 1 Jia Wei Wu 1 Xuelu Wang 2 3 and Zhi Xin Wang 1 1 MOE Key Laboratory for Protein Science School of Life Sciences Tsinghua University Beijing 100084 China 2 State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering and Institute of Plant Biology School of Life Sciences Fudan University Shanghai 200433 China 3 College of Life Science and Technology Huazhong Agricultural University Wuhan Hubei 430070 China Correspondence Zhi Xin Wang E mail zhixinwang mail tsinghua edu cn Brassinosteroids BRs are essential steroid hormones that have crucial roles in plant growth and development BRs are perceived by the cell surface receptor like kinase brassinosteroid insensitive 1 BRI1 In the absence of BRs the cytosolic kinase domain KD of BRI1 is inhibited by its auto inhibitory carboxyl terminus as well as by interacting with an inhibitor protein BRI1 kinase inhibitor 1 BKI1 How BR binding to the extracellular domain of BRI1 leads to activation of the KD and dissociation of BKI1 into the cytosol remains unclear Here we report the crystal structure of BRI1 KD in complex with the interacting peptide derived from BKI1 We also provide biochemical evidence that BRI1 associated

    Original URL path: http://www.cell-research.com/arts.asp?id=2014 (2016-02-14)
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  • Cell Research
    Liu Wang 3 1 Key Laboratory of Stem Cell Biology Institute of Health Sciences Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences SIBS Chinese Academy of Sciences CAS Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine SJTUSM Shanghai 200025 China 2 Laboratory of Molecular Cell Biology Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology SIBS CAS Shanghai 200031 China 3 State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Biology Institute of Zoology CAS Beijing 100101 China 4 Shanghai Stem Cell Institute SJTUSM Shanghai 200025 China Correspondence Huang Tian Yang Tel 86 21 63852593 E mail htyang sibs ac cn Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells iPSCs has opened new avenues for the investigation of heart diseases drug screening and potential autologous cardiac regeneration However their application is hampered by inefficient cardiac differentiation high interline variability and poor maturation of iPSC derived cardiomyocytes iPS CMs To identify efficient inducers for cardiac differentiation and maturation of iPSCs and elucidate the mechanisms we systematically screened sixteen cardiomyocyte inducers on various murine m iPSCs and found that only ascorbic acid AA consistently and robustly enhanced the cardiac differentiation of eleven lines including eight without spontaneous cardiogenic potential We then optimized the treatment conditions and demonstrated that differentiation day 2 6 a period for the specification of cardiac progenitor cells CPCs was a critical time for AA to take effect This was further confirmed by the fact that AA increased the expression of cardiovascular but not mesodermal markers Noteworthily AA treatment led to approximately 7 3 fold miPSCs and 30 2 fold human iPSCs augment in the yield of iPS CMs Such effect was attributed to a specific increase in the proliferation of CPCs via the MEK ERK1 2 pathway by promoting collagen synthesis In addition AA induced cardiomyocytes showed better sarcomeric organization and enhanced responses of action potentials and calcium transients to β

    Original URL path: http://www.cell-research.com/arts.asp?id=245 (2016-02-14)
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  • Cell Research
    Choksi 1 Kun Chen 1 2 Yelena Pobezinskaya 1 Ilona Linnoila 1 and Zheng Gang Liu 1 1 Cell and Cancer Biology Branch Center for Cancer Research National Cancer Institute National Institutes of Health 37 Convent Drive RM1130 Bethesda MD 20892 USA 2 School of Life Sciences Nanjing University Nanjing Jiangsu 210093 China Correspondence Zheng Gang Liu Tel 1 301 435 6351 Fax 1 301 402 1997 E mail zgliu helix nih gov Differentiation to different types of macrophages determines their distinct functions Tumor associated macrophages TAMs promote tumorigenesis owing to their proangiogenic and immune suppressive functions similar to those of alternatively activated M2 macrophages We report that reactive oxygen species ROS production is critical for macrophage differentiation and that inhibition of superoxide O2 production specifically blocks the differentiation of M2 macrophages We found that when monocytes are triggered to differentiate O2 is generated and is needed for the biphasic ERK activation which is critical for macrophage differentiation We demonstrated that ROS elimination by butylated hydroxyanisole BHA and other ROS inhibitors blocks macrophage differentiation However the inhibitory effect of ROS elimination on macrophage differentiation is overcome when cells are polarized to classically activated M1 but not M2 macrophages More importantly

    Original URL path: http://www.cell-research.com/arts.asp?id=1791 (2016-02-14)
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  • Cell Research
    Zheng 1 and Tony Hunter 1 1 Molecular and Cell Biology Laboratory Salk Institute for Biological Studies 10010 North Torrey Pines Road La Jolla CA 92037 USA Correspondence Xinde Zheng Tel 1 858 453 4100 1470 Email xzheng salk edu Tony Hunter Tel 1 858 453 4100 1385 E mail hunter salk edu Pink1 a mitochondrial kinase and Parkin an E3 ubiquitin ligase function in mitochondrial maintenance Pink1 accumulates on depolarized mitochondria where it recruits Parkin to mainly induce K63 linked chain ubiquitination of outer membrane proteins and eventually mitophagy Parkin belongs to the RBR E3 ligase family Recently it has been proposed that the RBR domain transfers ubiquitin to targets via a cysteine ubiquitin enzyme intermediate in a manner similar to HECT domain E3 ligases However direct evidence for a ubiquitin transfer mechanism and its importance for Parkin s in vivo function is still missing Here we report that Parkin E3 activity relies on cysteine mediated ubiquitin transfer during mitophagy Mutating the putative catalytic cysteine to serine Parkin C431S traps ubiquitin and surprisingly also abrogates Parkin mitochondrial translocation indicating that E3 activity is essential for Parkin translocation We found that Parkin can bind to K63 linked ubiquitin chains and

    Original URL path: http://www.cell-research.com/arts.asp?id=1790 (2016-02-14)
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  • Cell Research
    Jiang 1 Philip D Jeffrey 2 Tingwan Sun 3 Vitali Stanevich 1 Marc C Mumby 3 and Yongna Xing 1 1 McArdle Laboratory Department of Oncology University of Wisconsin Madison School of Medicine and Public Health Madison WI USA 2 Department of Molecular Biology Princeton University Princeton NJ USA 3 Department of Pharmacology University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center Dallas TX USA Correspondence Yongna Xing E mail xing oncology wisc edu The B PR72 family of protein phosphatase 2A PP2A is an important PP2A family involved in diverse cellular processes and uniquely regulated by calcium binding to the regulatory subunit The PR70 subunit in this family interacts with cell division control 6 Cdc6 a cell cycle regulator important for control of DNA replication Here we report crystal structures of the isolated PR72 and the trimeric PR70 holoenzyme at a resolution of 2 1 and 2 4 Å respectively and in vitro characterization of Cdc6 dephosphorylation The holoenzyme structure reveals that one of the PR70 calcium binding motifs directly contacts the scaffold subunit resulting in the most compact scaffold subunit conformation among all PP2A holoenzymes PR70 also binds distinctively to the catalytic subunit near the active site which is required for

    Original URL path: http://www.cell-research.com/arts.asp?id=1785 (2016-02-14)
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  • Cell Research
    Ann Arbor MI 48109 USA Correspondence Wenyi Wei Tel 01 617 735 2495 E mail wwei2 bidmc harvard edu Fbw7 and Cdh1 are substrate recognition subunits of the SCF and APC type E3 ubiquitin ligases respectively There is emerging evidence suggesting that both Fbw7 and Cdh1 function as tumor suppressors by targeting oncoproteins for destruction Loss of Fbw7 but not Cdh1 is frequently observed in various human tumors However it remains largely unknown how Fbw7 mechanistically functions as a tumor suppressor and whether there is a signaling crosstalk between Fbw7 and Cdh1 Here we report that Fbw7 deficient cells not only display elevated expression levels of SCFFbw7 substrates including cyclin E but also have increased expression of various APCCdh1 substrates We further defined cyclin E as the critical signaling link by which Fbw7 governs APCCdh1 activity as depletion of cyclin E in Fbw7 deficient cells results in decreased expression of APCCdh1 substrates to levels comparable to those in wild type WT cells Conversely ectopic expression of cyclin E recapitulates the aberrant APCCdh1 substrate expression observed in Fbw7 deficient cells More importantly 4A Cdh1 that is resistant to Cdk2 cyclin E mediated phosphorylation but not WT Cdh1 reversed the elevated expression

    Original URL path: http://www.cell-research.com/arts.asp?id=1786 (2016-02-14)
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