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  • Cell Research
    Baltimore MD 21201 USA 2 Department of Microbiology Immunology University of Maryland Baltimore MD 21201 USA 3 Institute of Human Virology University of Maryland Baltimore MD 21201 USA 4 Department of Microbiology Immunology and Tropic Medicine George Washington University Washington DC 20037 USA 5 AIDS Research Department Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology Bejing 100071 China 6 National Center for AIDS China Centers for Disease Control Beijing 100050 China Correspondence Richard Y ZHAO Tel 410 706 6301 E mail rzhao som umaryland edu Active host pathogen interactions take place during infection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 HIV 1 Outcomes of these interactions determine the efficiency of viral infection and subsequent disease progression HIV infected cells respond to viral invasion with various defensive strategies such as innate cellular and humoral immune antiviral mechanisms On the other hand the virus has also developed various offensive tactics to suppress these host cellular responses Among many of the viral offensive strategies HIV 1 viral auxiliary proteins Tat Rev Nef Vif Vpr and Vpu play important roles in the host pathogen interaction and thus have significant impacts on the outcome of HIV infection One of the best examples is the interaction of Vif with

    Original URL path: http://www.cell-research.com/arts.asp?id=1690 (2016-02-14)
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  • Cell Research
    National Institutes of Health Bethesda Maryland 20892 0460 USA 2 Center for Cancer Research Nanobiology Program NCI Center for Cancer Research NCI National Institutes of Health Fredrick MD 21702 USA Correspondence Kuan Teh JEANG Tel 301 496 6680 E mail kj7e nih gov Small interfering RNA siRNA and microRNA miRNA are small RNAs of 18 25 nucleotides nt in length that play important roles in regulating gene expression They are incorporated into an RNA induced silencing complex RISC and serve as guides for silencing their corresponding target mRNAs based on complementary base pairing The promise of gene silencing has led many researchers to consider siRNA as an anti viral tool However in long term settings many viruses appear to escape from this therapeutical strategy An example of this may be seen in the case of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 HIV 1 which is able to evade RNA silencing by either mutating the siRNA targeted sequence or by encoding for a partial suppressor of RNAi RNA interference On the other hand because miRNA targeting does not require absolute complementarity of base pairing mutational escape by viruses from miRNA specified silencing may be more difficult to achieve In this review we

    Original URL path: http://www.cell-research.com/arts.asp?id=1691 (2016-02-14)
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  • Cell Research
    mail cwood1 unl edu AIDS associated malignancies ARL is a major complication associated with AIDS patients upon immunosuppression Chronically immunocompromised patients have a markedly increased risk of developing lymphoproliferative disease In the era of potent antiretrovirals therapy ARV the malignant complications due to HIV 1 infection have decreased in developed nations where ARV is administered but still poses a major problem in developing countries where HIV 1 incidence is high and ARV is still not yet widely available Even in ARV treated individuals there is a concern that the prolonged survival of many HIV 1 carriers is likely to eventually result in an increased number of malignancies diagnosed Malignancies that were found to have high incidence in HIV infected individuals are Kaposi s sarcoma KS Hodgkin s disease HD and non Hodgkin s lymphoma NHL The incidence of NHL has increased nearly 200 fold in HIV positive patients and accounts for a greater percentage of AIDS defining illness in the US and Europe since the advent of HAART therapy These AIDS related lymphomas are distinct from their counterparts seen in HIV 1 seronegative patients For example nearly half of all cases of ARL are associated with the presence of a

    Original URL path: http://www.cell-research.com/arts.asp?id=1692 (2016-02-14)
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  • Cell Research
    Division Centre for Virus Research Westmead Millennium Institute The University of Sydney Westmead NSW 2145 Sydney Australia 2 AIDS and HIV Research Group Wuhan Institute of Virology Chinese Academy of Sciences Wuhan 430071 China 3 Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center The Rockefeller University New York NY 10021 USA 4 Modern Virology Research Center and AIDS Center State Key Laboratory of Virology College of Life Sciences Wuhan University Wuhan 430072 China 5 The AIDS Research Center Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences Peking Union Medical School Beijing 100730 China Correspondence Nitin K SAKSENA Tel 612 98459119 E mail Nitin saksena wmi usyd edu au Several reviews have focused on the nature of HIV infection and its spread in various geographical regions of China In contrast this review provides a comprehensive update on the prevalence of multiple HIV 1 subtypes consequent emergence of recombinant and novel forms of HIV 1 in China and the implications this may have on HIV diversity and the development of effective vaccines In addition it also examines the dissemination of primary drug resistance in therapy naïve patients as well as co infections with two other important viruses hepatitis B and C The main purpose of this review is

    Original URL path: http://www.cell-research.com/arts.asp?id=1693 (2016-02-14)
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  • Cell Research
    of Maryland Biotechnology Institute 725 W Lombard Street Baltimore MD 21201 USA 2 Institute of Infectious Diseases Emilio Ribas Sao Paulo 01246 Brazil 3 Clinical Research Unit in Human Retrovirology University of Campinas Sao Paulo 01246 Brazil Correspondence J Roberto TRUJILLO Tel 410 706 7443 E mail Trujillo umbi umd edu Neurological complications associated with HIV 1 AIDS are being recognized with a high frequency that parallels the increased number of AIDS cases The early infiltration by HIV 1 into the nervous system can cause primary and or secondary neurological complications The most common neurocognitive disorder is AIDS Dementia Complex ADC In developing countries of Asia the three most opportunistic infections are tuberculosis TB cryptococcosis and Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia Therefore it is expected that secondary neurological complications due to TB and cryptococcosis will be the most common cause of morbility and mortality in HIV 1 AIDS cases in China Research of NeuroAIDS in China is necessary to understand the impact and the biology of HIV 1 in the nervous system Future studies would include the molecular epidemiology and the description of opportunistic infections associated to HIV 1 the neuropathological description of primary and secondary HIV 1 complications in different groups

    Original URL path: http://www.cell-research.com/arts.asp?id=1694 (2016-02-14)
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  • Cell Research

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    Original URL path: /artsmore1.asp?id=92 (2016-02-14)


  • Cell Research
    Thomson Reuters 2013 Free Sample Issue Submission Advanced Online Publication Current Issue Top 10 VOLUME 16 ISSUE 1 1 2006 1 2 A journey to a brighter future Gang Pei Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences Chinese Academy of Sciences 320 Yueyang Road Shanghai 200031 China Correspondence Gang Pei E mail gpei sibs ac cn Cell Research 2006 16 1 2 doi 10 1038 sj

    Original URL path: http://www.cell-research.com/arts.asp?id=1116 (2016-02-14)
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  • Cell Research
    the immune system discriminates between all environmental antigens to which it reacts vs all self antigens to which it does not is a principal unanswered question in immunology As set forth in this review because of the advances in our understanding of the immune system that have occurred in the last 50 years for the first time it is possible to formulate a new theory termed the Quantal Theory of

    Original URL path: http://www.cell-research.com/arts.asp?id=1118 (2016-02-14)
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