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  • Cell Research
    2013 Free Sample Issue Submission Advanced Online Publication Current Issue Top 10 VOLUME 16 ISSUE 1 1 2006 20 24 Cytokines as critical co stimulatory molecules in modulating the immune response of natural killer cells Howard A Young John Ortaldo Laboratory of Experimental Immunology National Cancer Institute Frederick Center for Cancer Research Frederick MD 21702 USA Correspondence Howard A Young Tel 301 846 5700 E mail youngh ncifcrf gov Cytokines are involved in directing the activation of natural killer NK cells NK cells are involved in the recognition of cells that have been altered thus they do not recognize specific insults to the host but when activated are capable of destroying infected cells directly as well as promoting the recruitment and response of the other components of the immune system by the release of cytokines and chemokines It is these properties that have made NK cells a critical part of innate immunity and adaptive immunity and they play a principal role linking innate and adaptive immunity by the recruitment of an adaptive immune response to an innate immune reaction Cell Research 2006 16 20 24 doi 10 1038 sj cr 7310004 published online 16 January 2006 keywords NK cells cytokines

    Original URL path: http://www.cell-research.com/arts.asp?id=1119 (2016-02-14)
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  • Cell Research
    E mail xyliu sibs ac cn Our purpose is to completely elimination of xenograft tumor in animal tumor model in order to work out a protocal for the cure of patient Gene therapy and viral therapy for cancer have got some therapeutic effects but both have no great breakthrough Therefore we worked out a new strategy called Targeting Gene Virotherapy of Cancer which is a combination of the advantage of gene therapy and virotherapy This new strategy has stronger antitumor effect than either of them alone A tumor specific replicative adenovirus vector ZD55 E1B 55KD deleted Adv which is similar to ONYX 015 in targeting fuction but significant different in construction was produced and various single therapeutic gene was inserted into ZD55 Now such a conception as Targeting Gene Virotherapy of Cancer was raised and systemically studied before although there are some works on ONYX 015 tk cd or cd tk etc separately The antitumor effect of ZD55 Gene for example IL 24 gene is much better than ZD55 virotherapy alone and hundred fold high than that of Ad IL 24 gene therapy alone ZD55 IL 24 was in preclinal studying in the ZD55 IL 24 therapy completely elimination of tumor mass was occurred in some mice but not in all mice that means one gene was not effictive enough to eliminate all the tumor mass in all mice Therefore two genes with compensative or synergetic effect were inserted into ZD55 sepearately and used in combinction This strategy was called Targeting Dual Gene Virotherapy of Cancer with PCT patent Then much better results were obtained and all the xenograft tumor masses were completely eliminated in all mice if two suitable genes were chosen On the basis of the initiation of two gene results it was thought about that using two

    Original URL path: http://www.cell-research.com/arts.asp?id=1120 (2016-02-14)
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  • Cell Research
    Sample Issue Submission Advanced Online Publication Current Issue Top 10 VOLUME 16 ISSUE 1 1 2006 31 44 Approaches to functional genomics in filamentous fung Richard J Weld 1 Kim M Plummer 1 2 Margaret A Carpenter 1 Hayley J Ridgway 1 1 National Centre for Advanced Bio Protection Technologies PO Box 84 Lincoln University Canterbury 8150 New Zealand 2 LaTrobe University Melbourne 3086 Australia Correspondence Richard J Weld Tel 64 03 3253696 E mail weldr lincoln ac nz The study of gene function in filamentous fungi is a field of research that has made great advances in very recent years A number of transformation and gene manipulation strategies have been developed and applied to a diverse and rapidly expanding list of economically important filamentous fungi and oomycetes With the significant number of fungal genomes now sequenced or being sequenced functional genomics promises to uncover a great deal of new information in coming years This review discusses recent advances that have been made in examining gene function in filamentous fungi and describes the advantages and limitations of the different approaches Cell Research 2006 16 31 44 doi 10 1038 sj cr 7310006 published online 16 January 2006 keywords functional genomics

    Original URL path: http://www.cell-research.com/arts.asp?id=1121 (2016-02-14)
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  • Cell Research
    Lim 2 1 Department of Environmental and Radiological Health Science Colorado State University Fort Collins Colorado 80523 USA 2 Cancer Center Ordway Research Institute Albany New York 12208 USA Correspondence Ying Zhang Tel 01 970 491 0574 E mail Ying Zhang colostate edu The genomes of eukaryotic cells are under continuous assault by environmental agents and endogenous metabolic byproducts Damage induced in DNA usually leads to a cascade of cellular events the DNA damage response Failure of the DNA damage response can lead to development of malignancy by reducing the efficiency and fidelity of DNA repair The NBS1 protein is a component of the MRE11 RAD50 NBS1 complex MRN that plays a critical role in the cellular response to DNA damage and the maintenance of chromosomal integrity Mutations in the NBS1 gene are responsible for Nijmegen breakage syndrome NBS a hereditary disorder that imparts an increased predisposition to development of malignancy The phenotypic characteristics of cells isolated from NBS patients point to a deficiency in the repair of DNA double strand breaks Here we review the current knowledge of the role of NBS1 in the DNA damage response Emphasis is placed on the role of NBS1 in the DNA double

    Original URL path: http://www.cell-research.com/arts.asp?id=1122 (2016-02-14)
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  • Cell Research
    of Molecular Genetics Microbiology and Immunology The University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey Robert Wood Johnson Medical School 675 Hoes Lane West Piscataway NJ 08854 USA 2 Regional Laser Biotechnology Laboratories Department of Chemistry The University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia PA 19103 USA 3 Olympus America Inc SEG Two Corporate Center Drive Melville NY 11747 3157 USA 4 Cancer Institute of New Jersey 195 Little Albany Street New Brunswick New Jersey 08903 2681 USA 5 PBL Biomedical Laboratories 131 Ethel Road West Suite 6 Piscataway NJ 08854 5900 USA Correspondence Sidney Pestka Tel 732 235 4567 E mail pestka umdnj edu We previously demonstrated using noninvasive technologies that the interferon gamma IFN γ receptor complex is preassembled 1 In this report we determined how the receptor complex is preassembled and how the ligand mediated conformational changes occur The interaction of Stat1 with IFN γR1 results in a conformational change localized to IFN γR1 Jak1 but not Jak2 is required for the two chains of the IFN γ receptor complex IFN γR1 and IFN γR2 to interact however the presence of both Jak1 and Jak2 is required to see any ligand dependant conformational change Two IFN γR2 chains interact through

    Original URL path: http://www.cell-research.com/arts.asp?id=1123 (2016-02-14)
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  • Cell Research
    Jyoti Das 1 Gobardhan Das 1 1 Department of Molecular Genetics Microbiology and Immunology Robert Wood Johnson Medical School University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey 661 Hoes Lane Piscataway NJ 08854 USA Correspondence Gobardhan Das Tel 732 235 4502 E mail dasgo umdnj edu Inflammatory bowl disease IBD is a type 1 T helper cell Th1 mediated autoimmune disease Various studies have revealed that environmental pathogens also play a significant role in the initiation and progression of this disease Interestingly the pathogenesis of IBD has been shown to be related to nitric oxide NO released from innate immune cells Although NO is known to be highly toxic to the gut epithelia there is very little information about the regulation of NO production One major question in the etiology of IBD is how Th1 cells and pathogens interact in the induction of IBD In present study we focused on the regulation of NO We show that macrophages require both interferon γ IFN γ mediated and TLR4 mediated signals for the production of NO which causes inflammation in the intestine and subsequently IBD Thus IBD is the result of concerted actions of innate immune signals such as the binding of

    Original URL path: http://www.cell-research.com/arts.asp?id=1124 (2016-02-14)
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  • Cell Research
    of Internal Medicine College of Medicine Konkuk University Seoul 143 729 Korea 2 Graduate School of Medicine Korea University Seoul 136 701 Korea 3 Division of Oncology Department of Internal Medicine College of Medicine Korea University Seoul 425 707 Korea Correspondence Jae Hong Seo Tel 82 31 412 5886 E mail cancer korea ac kr Urokinase plasminogen activator receptor uPAR plays a major role in cancer invasion and metastasis and uPAR expression is correlated with a poor prognosis in various cancer types Moreover the expression of uPAR is increased under hypoxic conditions Nitric oxide NO and its metabolites produced by inducible nitric oxide synthase iNOS are important products of hypoxic stress and NO may activate or modulate extracellular signal regulated kinase ERK Here we evaluated uPA uPAR and activated ERK levels under hypoxic conditions and the modulatory effects of iNOS andNO in the MDA MB 231 human breast cancer cell line Cells were incubated in a hypoxic or normoxic incubator andtreated with PD98059 a MEK 1 2 inhibitor which abrogates ERK phosphorylation and aminoguanidine a selective iNOS inhibitor uPAR expression ERK phosphorylation and uPA activity were found to be increased under hypoxic conditions Moreover when cells were treated with PD98059

    Original URL path: http://www.cell-research.com/arts.asp?id=1125 (2016-02-14)
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  • Cell Research
    Shanghai Medical College Fudan University 138 Yi Xue Yuan Road Shanghai 200032 China 2 Department of Genetics School of Life Science Fudan University 220 Handan Road Shanghai 200433 China Correspondence Zong Hou Shen Chao Qun Wu Tel 86 21 54237299 86 21 65643404 E mail zhshen shmu edu cn cqwu fudan edu cn N acetylglucosaminyltransferase V GnT V is an important tumorigenesis and metastasis associated enzyme To study its biofunction the GnT V stably suppressed cell line GnT V AS 7721 was constructed from 7721 hepatocarcinoma cells in previous study In this study cDNA array gene expression profiles were compared between GnT V AS 7721 and parental 7721 cells The data indicated that GnT V AS 7721 showed a characteristic expression pattern consistent with the ER stress The molecular mechanism of the ER stress was explored in GnT V AS 7721 by the analysis on key molecules in both two unfolded protein response UPR pathways For ATF6 and Ire1 XBP 1 pathway it was evidenced by the up regulation of BIP at mRNA and protein level and the appearance of the spliced form of XBP 1 As for PERK eIF2α pathway the activation of ER eIF2α kinase PERK was observed To confirm the results from GnT V AS 7721 cells the key molecules in the UPR were examined again in 7721 cells interfered with the GnT V by the specific RNAi treatment The results were similar with those from GnT V AS 7721 indicating that blocking of GnT V can specifically activate ER stress in 7721 cells Rate of 3 H Man incorporation corrected with rate of 3 H Leu incorporation in GnT V AS 7721 was down regulated greatly compared with the control which demonstrated the deficient function of the enzyme synthesizing N glycans after GnT V blocking Moreover

    Original URL path: http://www.cell-research.com/arts.asp?id=1126 (2016-02-14)
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