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  • Cell Research
    1 and Michael N Hall 1 1 Biozentrum University of Basel Basel Switzerland Correspondence Michael N Hall E mail m hall unibas ch The evolutionarily conserved target of rapamycin complex 1 TORC1 is a master regulator of cell growth and metabolism In mammals growth factors and cellular energy stimulate mTORC1 activity through inhibition of the TSC complex TSC1 TSC2 TBC1D7 a negative regulator of mTORC1 Amino acids signal to mTORC1

    Original URL path: http://www.cell-research.com/arts.asp?id=2199 (2016-02-14)
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  • Cell Research
    Molecular Biology of Domestic Animals Kunming Institute of Zoology Chinese Academy of Sciences Kunming 650223 China 2 Human Genetics Genome Institute of Singapore A STAR 60 Biopolis Street Genome 02 01 Singapore 138672 Singapore 3 Department of Molecular and Cell Biology School of Life Sciences University of Science and Technology of China Hefei 230026 China 4 Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Bio resource Key Laboratory for Microbial Resources of the Ministry of Education Yunnan University Kunming 650091 China 5 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences Beijing 100049 China 6 Kunming College of Life Science University of Chinese Academy of Sciences Kunming 650223 China 7 Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution Russian Academy of Science 33 Leninskiy Prospect Moscow 119071 Russia 8 Laboratory Medicine Pathobiology University of Toronto 1 King s College Circle Rm 6211 Toronto ON Canada M5S 1A8 9 Research Programs Unit Molecular Neurology and Department of Veterinary Biosciences University of Helsinki and Folkhälsan Research Center Helsinki Finland 10 Department of Ecology and Evolution University of Chicago 5801 S Ellis Ave Chicago IL 60637 USA 11 Department of Gene Technology KTH Royal Institute of Technology Science for Life Laboratory Tomtebodavägen 23A 17165 Solna Sweden Correspondence Ya Ping Zhang E mail zhangyp mail kiz ac cn Peter Savolainen E mail savo biotech kth se The origin and evolution of the domestic dog remains a controversial question for the scientific community with basic aspects such as the place and date of origin and the number of times dogs were domesticated open to dispute Using whole genome sequences from a total of 58 canids 12 gray wolves 27 primitive dogs from Asia and Africa and a collection of 19 diverse breeds from across the world we find that dogs from southern East Asia have significantly higher genetic diversity compared to other

    Original URL path: http://www.cell-research.com/arts.asp?id=2200 (2016-02-14)
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  • Cell Research
    2 Shan He 1 2 Yuping Wang 4 Hua Lin 4 Weifeng Yang 5 Junfang Liu 1 2 Yang Zhao 1 2 3 and Hongkui Deng 1 2 1 Shenzhen Stem Cell Engineering Laboratory Key Laboratory of Chemical Genomics Peking University Shenzhen Graduate School Shenzhen Guangdong 518055 China 2 The MOE Key Laboratory of Cell Proliferation and Differentiation College of Life Sciences Peking Tsinghua Center for Life Sciences Peking University Beijing 100871 China 3 Department of Cell Biology School of Basic Medical Sciences Peking University Stem Cell Research Center State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs Peking University Health Science Center Beijing 100191 China 4 Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics China Japan Friendship Hospital Beijing 100029 China 5 BeijingVitalstar Biotechnology Co Ltd Beijing 100012 China Correspondence Hongkui Deng E mail hongkui deng pku edu cn Yang Zhao E mail yangzhao pku edu cn Recently we reported a chemical approach to generate pluripotent stem cells from mouse fibroblasts However whether chemically induced pluripotent stem cells CiPSCs can be derived from other cell types remains to be demonstrated Here using lineage tracing we first verify the generation of CiPSCs from fibroblasts Next we demonstrate that neural stem cells NSCs from the ectoderm and small intestinal epithelial cells IECs from the endoderm can be chemically reprogrammed into pluripotent stem cells CiPSCs derived from NSCs and IECs resemble mouse embryonic stem cells in proliferation rate global gene expression profile epigenetic status self renewal and differentiation capacity and germline transmission competency Interestingly the pluripotency gene Sall4 is expressed at the initial stage in the chemical reprogramming process from different cell types and the same core small molecules are required for the reprogramming suggesting conservation in the molecular mechanism underlying chemical reprogramming from these diverse cell types Our analysis also shows that the use of

    Original URL path: http://www.cell-research.com/arts.asp?id=2201 (2016-02-14)
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  • Cell Research
    Chengdu Sichuan 610041 China 2 Laboratory of Stem Cell Biology West China Hospital Sichuan University Chengdu Sichuan 610041 China 3 Medicine and Pharmacy Research Center Binzhou Medical University Yantai Shandong 264003 China 4 School of Basic Medicine Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine Chengdu Sichuan 610075 China 5 State Key Laboratory of Microbial Resources Institute of Microbiology Chinese Academy of Sciences Beijing 100101 China 6 Cancer Center West China Hospital Sichuan University Chengdu Sichuan 610041 China Correspondence Yangfu Jiang Tel 86 28 85164044 Fax 86 28 85164046 E mail jyangfu scu edu cn Mammalian target of rapamycin mTOR is a core component of raptor mTOR mTORC1 and rictor mTOR mTORC2 complexes that control diverse cellular processes Both mTORC1 and mTORC2 regulate several elements downstream of type I insulin like growth factor receptor IGF IR and insulin receptor InsR However it is unknown whether and how mTOR regulates IGF IR and InsR themselves Here we show that mTOR possesses unexpected tyrosine kinase activity and activates IGF IR InsR Rapamycin induces the tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of IGF IR InsR which is largely dependent on rictor and mTOR Moreover mTORC2 promotes ligand induced activation of IGF IR InsR IGF and insulin induced IGF IR InsR phosphorylation is significantly compromised in rictor null cells Insulin receptor substrate IRS directly interacts with SIN1 thereby recruiting mTORC2 to IGF IR InsR and promoting rapamycin or ligand induced phosphorylation of IGF IR InsR mTOR exhibits tyrosine kinase activity towards the general tyrosine kinase substrate poly Glu Tyr and IGF IR InsR Both recombinant mTOR and immunoprecipitated mTORC2 phosphorylate IGF IR and InsR on Tyr1131 1136 and Tyr1146 1151 respectively These effects are independent of the intrinsic kinase activity of IGF IR InsR as determined by assays on kinase dead IGF IR InsR mutants While both rictor

    Original URL path: http://www.cell-research.com/arts.asp?id=2202 (2016-02-14)
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  • Cell Research
    1 Shanghai Center for Plant Stress Biology Shanghai Institute for Biological Sciences Chinese Academy of Sciences Shanghai 200032 China 2 Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture Purdue University West Lafayette IN 47906 USA 3 Current address National Key Laboratory of Crop Genetics and Germplasm Enhancement Nanjing Agricultural University Nanjing 210095 China Correspondence Jian Kang Zhu Tel 86 21 57078201 Fax 86 21 54924107 E mail jkzhu sibs ac cn RNA directed DNA methylation RdDM is an important de novo DNA methylation pathway in plants Small interfering RNAs siRNAs generated by Dicers from RNA polymerase IV Pol IV transcripts are thought to guide sequence specific DNA methylation To gain insight into the mechanism of RdDM we performed whole genome bisulfite sequencing of a collection of Arabidopsis mutants including plants deficient in Pol IV nrpd1 or Dicer dcl1 2 3 4 activity Unexpectedly of the RdDM target loci that required Pol IV and or Pol V only 16 were fully dependent on Dicer activity DNA methylation was partly or completely independent of Dicer activity at the remaining Pol IV and or Pol V dependent loci despite the loss of 24 nt siRNAs Instead DNA methylation levels correlated with the accumulation of Pol

    Original URL path: http://www.cell-research.com/arts.asp?id=2203 (2016-02-14)
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  • Cell Research
    and Xu Zhang 1 4 1 Institute of Neuroscience and State Key Laboratory of Neuroscience CAS Center for Excellence in Brain Science Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences Chinese Academy of Sciences Shanghai 20031 China 2 National Engineering Center for Biochip at Shanghai Shanghai China 3 State Key Laboratory of Cell Biology Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences Chinese Academy of Sciences 4 School of Life Science and Technology ShanghaiTec University Shanghai 200031 China 5 Shanghai Clinical Center Chinese Academy of Sciences XuHui Central Hospital Shanghai China Correspondence Xu Zhang Tel 86 21 54921726 Fax 86 21 54921762 E mail xu zhang ion ac cn Sensory neurons are distinguished by distinct signaling networks and receptive characteristics Thus sensory neuron types can be defined by linking transcriptome based neuron typing with the sensory phenotypes Here we classify somatosensory neurons of the mouse dorsal root ganglion DRG by high coverage single cell RNA sequencing 10 950 1 218 genes per neuron and neuron size based hierarchical clustering Moreover single DRG neurons responding to cutaneous stimuli are recorded using an in vivo whole cell patch clamp technique and classified by neuron type genetic markers Small diameter DRG neurons are

    Original URL path: http://www.cell-research.com/arts.asp?id=2204 (2016-02-14)
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  • Cell Research
    Institute of Genomics Chinese Academy of Sciences Beijing 100101 China 3 Department of Urology Peking University First Hospital Beijing 100034 China 4 Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Translational Research Ministry of Education Department of Pathology Peking University School of Oncology Peking University Cancer Hospital and Institute Beijing 100142 China 5 Department of Urology Peking University People s Hospital Beijing 100034 China 6 Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Biology and Medicine Ministry of Education Department of Chemistry Wuhan University Wuhan Hubei 430072 China 7 Institute for Genomics and Systems Biology and Department of Human Genetics University of Chicago Chicago IL 60637 USA 8 Collaborative Innovation Center of Genetics and Development Beijing Institute of Genomics Chinese Academy of Sciences Beijing 100101 China 9 Current address Institute for Cancer Genetics Irving Cancer Research Center Columbia University New York NY 10032 USA 10 Current address Department of Urology Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University Wuhan Hubei 430071 China Correspondence Weimin Ci E mail ciwm big ac cn Jiang Liu E mail liuj big ac cn Liqun Zhou E mail zhoulqmail china com Both 5 methylcytosine 5mC and its oxidized form 5 hydroxymethylcytosine 5hmC have been proposed to be involved in tumorigenesis Because the readout of the broadly used 5mC mapping method bisulfite sequencing BS seq is the sum of 5mC and 5hmC levels the 5mC 5hmC patterns and relationship of these two modifications remain poorly understood By profiling real 5mC BS seq corrected by Tet assisted BS seq TAB seq and 5hmC TAB seq levels simultaneously at single nucleotide resolution we here demonstrate that there is no global loss of 5mC in kidney tumors compared with matched normal tissues Conversely 5hmC was globally lost in virtually all kidney tumor tissues The 5hmC level in tumor tissues is an independent prognostic marker for kidney cancer

    Original URL path: http://www.cell-research.com/arts.asp?id=2205 (2016-02-14)
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  • Cell Research
    Kathy O Lui 7 and Bin Zhou 1 8 9 1 Key Laboratory of Nutrition and Metabolism Institute for Nutritional Sciences Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences Chinese Academy of Sciences Shanghai 200031 China 2 State Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease Fuwai Hospital National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College Beijing 100037 China 3 Zhongshan Hospital Fudan University Shanghai 200032 China 4 Department of Cardiology The First Affiliated Hospital School of Medicine Zhejiang University 79 Qingchun Road Hangzhou Zhejiang 310003 China 5 Department of Cardiovascular Medicine Southern Medical University Affiliated Fengxian Hospital Shanghai 201499 China 6 Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases Innovative Medicines AstraZeneca Mölndal 43183 Sweden 7 Department of Chemical Pathology Li Ka Shing Institute of Health Sciences The Chinese University of Hong Kong Prince of Wales Hospital Shatin Hong Kong SAR 999077 China 8 Institute of Neuroscience State Key Laboratory of Neuroscience CAS Center for Excellence in Brain Science and Intelligence Technology Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences Chinese Academy of Sciences Shanghai 200031 China 9 ShanghaiTech University Shanghai 201210 China Correspondence Bin Zhou Tel 86 21 54920974 E mail zhoubin sibs ac cn Cardiac cells marked by c Kit or Kit dubbed cardiac stem cells CSCs are in clinical trials to investigate their ability to stimulate cardiac regeneration and repair These studies were initially motivated by the purported cardiogenic activity of these cells Recent lineage tracing studies using Kit promoter to drive expression of the inducible Cre recombinase showed that these CSCs had highly limited cardiogenic activity inadequate to support efficient cardiac repair Here we reassess the lineage tracing data by investigating the identity of cells immediately after Cre labeling Our instant lineage tracing approach identifies Kit expressing cardiomyocytes which are labeled immediately after tamoxifen

    Original URL path: http://www.cell-research.com/arts.asp?id=2206 (2016-02-14)
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