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  • Cell Research
    TNF α was inhibited both phenotypically and functionally Such an effect was less remarkable when DC was stimulated by a physiological stimulus CD40 ligand Tryptophan deprivation during DC activation also regulated the expression of CCR5 and CXCR4 as well as DC responsiveness to chemokines These results suggest that tryptophan usage in the microenvironment is essential for DC maturation and may also play a role in the regulation of DC migratory behaviors Residues met 76 and gln 79 in HLA G α1 domain involved in KIR2DL4 recognition Wei Hua YAN 1 2 Li An FAN 1 2 Full Text PDF Human leukocyte antigen G HLA G has long been speculated as a beneficial factor for a successful pregnancy for its restricted expression on fetal maternal extravillous cytotrophoblasts and its capability of modulating uterine natural killer cell uNK function such as cytotoxicity and cytokine production through NK cell receptors HLA class I α1 domain is an important killer cell Ig like receptor KIR recognition site and the Met 76 and Gln 79 are unique to HLA G in this region NK cell receptor KIR2DL4 is a specific receptor for HLA G yet the recognition site on HLA G remains unknown In this study retroviral transduction was applied to express the wild type HLA G HLA wtG mutant HLA G HLA mG on the chronic myelogenous leukemia cell line K562 cells and KIR2DL4 molecule on NK 92 cells respectively KIR2DL4 IgG Fc fusion protein was generated to determine the binding specificity between KIR2DL4 and HLA G Our results showed that residue Met 76 Gln 79 mutated to Ala 76 79 in the α1 domain of HLA G protein could affect the binding affinity between KIR2DL4 and HLA G meanwhile the KIR2DL4 transfected NK 92 cells NK 92 2DL4 showed a considerably different cytolysis ability against the HLA wtG and HLA mG transfected K562 targets Taken together our data indicated that residue Met 76 and Gln 79 in HLA G α1 domain plays a critical role in the recognition of KIR2DL4 which could be an explanation for the isoforms of HLA G all containing the α1 domain with the potential to regulate NK functions Golgi localization and dynamics of hyaluronan binding protein 1 HABP1 p32 C1QBP during the cell cycle Aniruddha SENGUPTA 1 Bhaswati BANERJEE 1 Rakesh K TYAGI 2 Kasturi DATTA 1 2 Full Text PDF Hyaluronan binding protein 1 HABP1 is a negatively charged multifunctional mammalian protein with a unique structural fold Despite the fact that HABP1 possesses mitochondrial localization signal it has also been localized to other cellular compartments Using indirect immunofluorescence we examined the sub cellular localization of HABP1 and its dynamics during mitosis We wanted to determine whether it distributes in any distinctive manner after mitotic nuclear envelope disassembly or is dispersed randomly throughout the cell Our results reveal the golgi localization of HABP1 and demonstrate its complete dispersion throughout the cell during mitosis This distinctive distribution pattern of HABP1 during mitosis resembles its ligand hyaluronan suggesting that in

    Original URL path: http://www.cell-research.com/artsmore.asp?id=101 (2016-02-14)
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  • Cell Research
    beneficial for future cancer treatment The role of epigenetic inactivation of 14 3 3δ in human cancer Dmitri LODYGIN Heiko HERMEKING Full Text PDF Cancer cells show characteristic alterations in DNA methylation patterns Aberrant CpG methylation of specific promoters results in inactivation of tumor suppressor genes and therefore plays an important role in carcinogenesis The p53 regulated gene 14 3 3δ undergoes frequent epigenetic silencing in several types of cancer including carcinoma of the breast prostate and skin suggesting that the loss of 14 3 3δ expression may be causally involved in tumor progression Functional studies demonstrated that 14 3 3δ is involved in cell cycle control and prevents the accumulation of chromosomal damage The recent identification of novel 14 3 3δ associated proteins by a targeted proteomics approach implies that 14 3 3δ regulates diverse cellular processes which may become deregulated after silencing of 14 3 3δ expression in cancer cells Epigenetic alterations in gastric carcinogenesis In Seon CHOI Tsung Teh WU Full Text PDF Gastric cancer is believed to result in part from the accumulation of multiple genetic alterations leading to oncogene overexpression and tumor suppressor loss Epigenetic alterations as a distinct and crucial mechanism to silence a variety of methylated tissue specific and imprinted genes have been extensively studied in gastric carcinoma and play important roles in gastric carcinogenesis This review will briefly discuss the basic aspects of DNA methylation and CpG island methylation in particular the epigenetic alterations of certain critical genes implicated in gastric carcinogenesis and its relevance of clinical implications Methyl CpG binding proteins in the nervous system Guoping FAN Leah HUTNICK Full Text PDF Classical methyl CpG binding proteins contain the conserved DNA binding motif methyl cytosine binding domain MBD which preferentially binds to methylated CpG dinucleotides These proteins serve as transcriptional repressors mediating gene silencing via DNA cytosine methylation Mutations in methyl CpG binding protein 2 MeCP2 have been linked to the human mental retardation disorder Rett syndrome suggesting an important role for methyl CpG binding proteins in brain development and function This mini review summarizes the recent advances in studying the diverse functions of MeCP2 as a prototype for other methyl CpG binding proteins in the development and function of the vertebrate nervous system Epigenetic changes in virus associated human cancers Hsin Pai LI 1 Yu Wei LEU 2 Yu Sun CHANG 1 Full Text PDF Epigenetics of human cancer becomes an area of emerging research direction due to a growing understanding of specific epigenetic pathways and rapid development of detection technologies Aberrant promoter hypermethylation is a prevalent phenonmena in human cancers Tumor suppressor genes are often hypermethylated due to the increased activity or deregulation of DNMTs Increasing evidence also reveals that viral genes are one of the key players in regulating DNA methylation In this review we will focus on hypermethylation and tumor suppressor gene silencing and the signal pathways that are involved particularly in cancers closely associated with the hepatitis B virus simian virus 40 SV40 and Epstein Barr

    Original URL path: http://www.cell-research.com/artsmore.asp?id=100 (2016-02-14)
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  • Cell Research
    identified potential miRNAs may be induced and regulated by environmental biotic and abiotic stresses Some may be preferentially expressed in specific tissues and are regulated by developmental switching These findings suggest that EST analysis is a good alternative strategy for identifying new miRNA candidates their targets and other genes A large number of miRNAs exist in different plant species and play important roles in plant developmental switching and plant responses to environmental abiotic and biotic stresses as well as signal transduction Environmental stresses and developmental switching may be the signals for synthesis and regulation of miRNAs in plants A model for miRNA induction and expression and gene regulation by miRNA is hypothesized Differential regulation of survivin by p53 contributes to cell cycle dependent apoptosis Yan JIN Yong WEI Lei XIONG Ying YANG Jia Rui WU Full Text PDF Recent studies indicate that cell cycle checkpoints are tightly correlated with the regulation of apoptosis in which p53 plays an important role Our present works show that the expression of E6 E7 oncogenes of human papillomavirus in HeLa cells is inhibited in the presence of anti tumor reagent tripchlorolide TC which results in the up regulation of p53 in HeLa cells Interestingly under the same TC treatment the cells at the early S phase are more susceptible to apoptosis than those at the middle S phase although p53 protein is stabilized to the same level in both situations Significant difference is exhibited between the two specified expression profiles Further analysis demonstrates that anti apoptotic gene survivin is up regulated by p53 in the TC treated middle S cells whereas it is down regulated by p53 in the TC treated early S cells Taken together the present study indicates that the differential p53 regulated expression of survivin at different stages of the cell cycle results in different cellular outputs under the same apoptosis inducer Involvement of regulatory volume decrease in the migration of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells Jian Wen MAO 1 Li Wei WANG 2 3 Tim JACOB 3 Xue Rong SUN 2 Hui LI 1 Lin Yan ZHU 2 Pan LI 1 Ping ZHONG 2 Si Huai NIE 2 Li Xin CHEN 1 3 Full Text PDF The transwell chamber migration assay and CCD digital camera imaging techniques were used to investigate the relationship between regulatory volume decrease RVD and cell migration in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells CNE 2Z cells Both migrated and non migrated CNE 2Z cells when swollen by 47 hypotonic solution exhibited RVD which was inhibited by extracellular application of chloride channel blockers adenosine 5 triphosphate ATP 5 nitro 2 3 phenylpropylamino benzoic acid NPPB and tamoxifen However RVD rate in migrated CNE 2Z cells was bigger than that of non migrated cells and the sensitivity of migrated cells to NPPB and tamoxifen was higher than that of non migrated cells ATP NPPB and tamoxifen also inhibited migration of CNE 2Z cells The inhibition of migration was positively correlated to the blockage of RVD with a correlation coefficient r 0 99

    Original URL path: http://www.cell-research.com/artsmore.asp?id=99 (2016-02-14)
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  • Cell Research
    TR1 and TR2 expression increases significantly in a number of malignant tissues but in some common malignancies their expression was low or patchy which may limit the therapeutic role of TRAIL Taken together we have a panel of monoclonal antibodies that will allow a better assessment of the normal role of TRAIL and allow assessment of biopsy material possibly allowing the identification of tumors that may be amenable to TRAIL therapy Identification of eight genes that are potentially involved in tamoxifen sensitivity in breast cancer cells Tyler Zarubin Qing Jing Liguo New Jiahuai Han Full Text PDF Although the antiestrogen agent tamoxifen has long been used to treat women with hormone receptor positive invasive breast carcinoma the mechanisms of its action and acquired resistance to tamoxifen during treatment are largely unknown A number of studies have revealed that over activation of some signaling pathways can cause tamoxifen resistance however very little information is available regarding the genes whose loss of function alternation contribute to tamoxifen resistance Here we used a forward genetic approach in vitro to generate tamoxifen resistant cells from the tamoxifen sensitive breast cancer cell line ZR 75 1 and further identified the disrupted gene in different tamoxifen resistant clones Retinol binding protein 7 DNA polymerase transactivated protein 3 γ glutamyltransferase like activity 1 slit robo RhoGTPase activating protein tetraspan NET 4 HSPC194 amiloride sensitive epithelial sodium channel gene and Notch2 were the eight mutated genes identified in different tamoxifen resistant clones suggesting their requirement for tamoxifen sensitivity in ZR 75 1 cells Since the functions of these genes are not related to each other it suggests that multiple pathways can influence tamoxifen sensitivity in breast cancer cells Characterization of transgene integration pattern in F4 hGH transgenic common carp Cyprinus carpio L Bo WU 1 Yong Hua SUN 1 Yan Wu WANG 1 2 Ya Ping WANG 1 Zuo Yan ZHU 1 Full Text PDF The integration pattern and adjacent host sequences of the inserted pMThGH transgene in the F4 hGH transgenic common carp were extensively studied Here we show that each F4 transgenic fish contained about 200 copies of the pMThGH transgene and the transgenes were integrated into the host genome generally with concatemers in a head to tail arrangement at 4 5 insertion sites By using a method of plasmid rescue four hundred copies of transgenes from two individuals of F4 transgenic fish A and B were recovered and clarified into 6 classes All classes of recovered transgenes contained either complete or partial pMThGH sequences The class I which comprised 83 and 84 5 respectively of the recovered transgene copies from fish A and B had maintained the original configuration indicating that most transgenes were faithfully inherited during the four generations of reproduction The other five classes were different from the original configuration in both molecular weight and restriction map indicating that a few transgenes had undergone mutation rearrangement or deletion during integration and germline transmission In the five types of aberrant transgenes three flanking sequences

    Original URL path: http://www.cell-research.com/artsmore.asp?id=98 (2016-02-14)
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  • Cell Research
    through a nuclear localization signal NLS mediated mechanism The NLS sequence KRRQQKIRKYTMRR aa655 668 contains three clusters of basic amino acids and it is sufficient to target GFP into the nucleus However mutation in any basic amino acid cluster of this NLS sequence significantly affects its nuclear localization Furthermore it was found that this NLS is essential for the nuclear localization of ErbB2 since the intracellular domain of Erb2 lacking NLS completely abrogates its nuclear translocation Taken together our study identified a novel nuclear localization signal and reveals a novel mechanism underlying ErbB2 nuclear trafficking and localization Gene expression alteration during redox dependent enhancement of arsenic cytotoxicity by emodin in HeLa cells Xiao Jing WANG Jie YANG Hui CANG Yan Qiong ZOU Jing YI Full Text PDF Emodin 1 3 8 trihydroxy 6 methylanthraquinone could enhance the sensitivity of tumor cells to arsenic trioxide As 2 O 3 induced apoptosis via generation of ROS but the molecular mechanism has not been elucidated Here we carried out cDNA microarray based global transcription profiling of HeLa cells in response to As 2 O 3 emodin cotreatment comparing with As 2 O 3 only treatment The results showed that the expression of a number of genes was substantially altered at two time points These genes are involved in different aspects of cell function In addition to redox regulation and apoptosis ROS affect genes encoding proteins associated with cell signaling organelle functions cell cycle cytoskeleton etc These data suggest that based on the cytotoxicity of As 2 O 3 emodin mobilize every genomic resource through which the As 2 O 3 induced apoptosis is facilitated Ultrastructure and histochemistry of rat myocardial capillary endothelial cells in response to diabetes and hypertension Ludmila OKRUHLICOVA 1 Narcis TRIBULOVA 1 Peter WEISMANN 2 Ruzena SOTNIKOVA 3 Full Text PDF Insufficient growth and rarefaction of capillaries followed by endothelial dysfunction may represent one of the most critical mechanisms involved in heart damage In this study we examined histochemical and ultrastructural changes in myocardial capillary endothelium in two models of heart failure streptozotocin induced diabetes mellitus STZ and NO deficient hypertension in male Wistar rats Diabetes was induced by a single i v dose of STZ 45 mg kg and chronic 9 week stage was analysed To induce NO deficient hypertension animals were treated with inhibitor of NO synthase L nitroarginine methylester L NAME 40 mg kg for 4 weeks Left ventricular tissue was processed for enzyme catalytic histochemistry of capillary alkaline phosphatase AlPh dipeptidyl peptidase IV DPP IV and endothelial NO synthase NADPH diaphorase NOS and for ultrastructural analysis In diabetic and hypertensive rats lower absent AlPh and DPP IV activities were found in focal micro areas NOS activity was significantly reduced and persisted only locally Quantitative evaluation demonstrated reduction of reaction product intensity of AlPh DPP and NOS by 49 50 74 36 20 05 in diabetic and 62 93 82 71 37 65 in hypertensive rats Subcellular alterations of endothelial cells were found in heart of both

    Original URL path: http://www.cell-research.com/artsmore.asp?id=97 (2016-02-14)
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  • Cell Research
    1 2 Xian Quan BAI 1 2 Qian QIAN 3 Xiu Jie WANG 1 Ming Sheng CHEN 1 Cheng Cai CHU 1 Full Text PDF WRKY family proteins are a class of plant specific transcription factors that involve in many stress response pathways It has been shown that one Arabidopsis WRKY protein AtWRKY29 22 is activated by MAP kinase signaling cascade and confers resistance to both bacterial and fungal pathogens However little is known about the biological roles of WRKY proteins in rice In this study we investigated the expression patterns of rice AtWRKY29 22 homolog OsWRKY03 under different conditions and also its possible role involved in plant defense Our results showed that OsWRKY03 was up regulated by several defense signaling molecules or different treatments Further analysis revealed that the expression of OsWRKY03 was light dependent Transcriptional activation activity of OsWRKY03 was also demonstrated by yeast functional assay Transient expression of OsWRKY03 GFP fusion protein in onion epidermis cells showed that OsWRKY03 was a nuclear localized protein OsNPR1 as well as several other pathogenesis related genes such as OsPR1b phenylalanine ammonia lyase ZB8 and peroxidase POX22 3 were induced in OsWRKY03 overexpressing transgenic plants These results indicated that OsWRKY03 is located upstream of OsNPR1 as a transcriptional activator in salicylic acid SA dependent or jasmonic acid JA dependent defense signaling cascades Cellular localization and biochemical characterization of a novel calcium dependent protein kinase from tobacco Yun Wang Mei Zhang Ke KE Ying Tang Lu Full Text PDF By screening tobacco cDNA library with MCK1 as a probe we isolated a cDNA clone NtCPK5 accession number AY971376 which encodes a typical calcium dependent protein kinase Sequence analyses indicated that NtCPK5 is related to both CPKs and CRKs superfamilies and has all of the three conserved domains of CPKs The biochemical activity of NtCPK5 was calcium dependent NtCPK5 had V max and K m of 526 nmol min mg and 210 µg ml respectively with calf thymus histone fraction III abbreviated to histone IIIs as substrate For substrate syntide 2 NtCPK5 showed a higher V max of 2008 nmol min mg and a lower K m of 30 µM The K 0 5 of calcium activation was 0 04 µM or 0 06 µM for histone IIIs or syntide 2 respectively The putative myristoylation and palmitoylation consensus sequence of NtCPK5 suggests that it could be a membrane anchoring protein Indeed our transient expression experiments with wild type and mutant forms of NtCPK5 GFP fusion proteins showed that NtCPK5 was localized to the plasma membrane of onion epidermal cells and that the localization required the N terminal acylation sites of NtCPK5 GFP Taking together our data have demonstrated the biochemical characteristics of a novel protein NtCPK5 and its subcellular localization as a membrane anchoring protein AtbHLH29 of Arabidopsis thaliana is a functional ortholog of tomato FER involved in controlling iron acquisition in strategy I plants You Xi YUAN 1 2 Juan ZHANG 1 2 Dao Wen WANG 1 Hong Qing LING 1 Full Text PDF AtbHLH29 of Arabidopsis encoding a bHLH protein reveals a high similarity to the tomato FER which is proposed as a transcriptional regulator involved in controlling the iron deficiency responses and the iron uptake in tomato For identification of its biological functions AtbHLH29 was introduced into the genome of the tomato FER mutant T3238fer mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciencs Transgenic plants were regenerated and the stable integration of AtbHLH29 into their genomes was confirmed by Southern hybridization Molecular analysis demonstrated that expression of the exogenous AtbHLH29 of Arabidopsis in roots of the FER mutant T3238fer enabled to complement the defect functions of FER The transgenic plants regained the ability to activate the whole iron deficiency responses and showed normal growth as the wild type under iron limiting stress Our transformation data demonstrate that AtbHLH29 is a functional ortholog of the tomato FER and can completely replace FER in controlling the effective iron acquisition in tomato Except of iron FER protein was directly or indirectly involved in manganese homeostasis due to that loss functions of FER in T3238fer resulted in strong reduction of Mn content in leaves and the defect function on Mn accumulation in leaves was complemented by expression of AtbHLH29 in the transgenic plants Identification of the similar biological functions of FER and AtbHLH29 which isolated from two systematically wide diverged strategy I plants suggests that FER might be a universal gene presented in all strategy I plants in controlling effective iron acquisition system in roots Fine mapping and marker assisted selection MAS of a low glutelin content gene in rice Yi Hua WANG 1 Shi Jia LIU 1 Su Lan JI 1 Wen Wei ZHANG 1 Chun Ming WANG 1 Ling JIANG 1 Jian Min WAN 1 2 Full Text PDF Rice with low glutelin content is suitable as functional food for patients affected with diabetes and kidney failure The fine mapping of the gene s responsible for low glutelin content will provide information regarding the distribution of glutelin related genes in rice genome and will generate markers for the selection of low glutelin rice varieties Following an SDS PAGE screen of rice germplasm from Taihu Valley of China Japonica selection W3660 is identified to be a novel mutant characterized with low glutelin content For fine mapping the mutant gene for low glutelin content F 2 and F 3 populations were derived from a cross between W3660 and Jingrennuo SDS PAGE analysis of the total endosperm protein showed that the low glutelin content trait was controlled by a single dominant nuclear gene Genetic mapping using SSRs located this gene to chromosome 2 in the region between SSR2 001 SSR2 004 and RM1358 The distances of the two markers to the target gene were 1 1 cM and 3 8 cM respectively By semi quantitative RT PCR analysis the transcripts of GluB4 GluB5 genes located within the region do not change However GluB5 gene located proximal to SSR2 001 SSR2 004 was specifically reduced SSR profiles of seven Japonica

    Original URL path: http://www.cell-research.com/artsmore.asp?id=96 (2016-02-14)
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  • Cell Research
    two isolates of T vaginalis and the influence of the iron concentration present in the parasite s culture medium on the interaction effects Our results show that T vaginalis adheres to the epithelial cell causing alterations in the junctional complex such as a a decrease in transepithelial electrical resistance b alteration in the pattern of junctional complex proteins distribution as observed for E cadherin occludin and ZO 1 and c enlargement of the spaces between epithelial cells These effects were dependent on a the degree of the parasite virulence isolate b the iron concentration in the culture medium and c the expression of adhesin proteins on the parasite surface Long term modifications of blood pressure in normotensive and spontaneously hypertensive rats by gene delivery of rAAV mediated cytochrome P450 arachidonic acid hydroxylase Fan ZHANG 1 2 Chun Lian CHEN 1 Jia Qing QIAN 2 Jiang Tao YAN 1 Katherine CIANFLONE 3 Xiao XIAO 4 Dao Wen WANG 1 Full Text PDF Arachidonic acid cytochrome P 450 CYP hydroxylase 4A isoforms including 4A1 4A2 4A3 and 4A8 in the rat kidney catalyze arachidonic acid to produce 19 20 Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids 20 HETE a biologically active metabolite which plays an important role in the regulation of blood pressure However controversial results have been reported regarding the exact role of 20 HETE on blood pressure In the present study we used recombinant adeno associated viral vector rAAV to deliver CYP 4A1 cDNA and antisense 4A1 cDNA into Sprague Dawley SD rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats SHR respectively to investigate the effects of long term modifications of blood pressure and the potential for gene therapy of hypertension The mean systolic pressure increased by 14 2 2 5 mm Hg in rAAV 4A1 treated SD rats and decreased by 13 7 2 2 mm Hg in rAAV anti4A1 treated SHR rats 5 weeks after the injection compared with controls and these changes in blood pressure were maintained until the experiments ended at 24 weeks In 4A1 treated animals CYP4A was overexpressed in various tissues but preferentially in the kidney at both mRNA and protein levels In anti 4A1 treated SHR CYP4A mRNA in various tissues was probed especially in kidneys but 4A1 protein expression was almost completely inhibited These results suggest that arachidonic acid CYP hydroxylases contribute not only to the maintenance of normal blood pressure but also to the development of hypertension rAAV mediated anti4A administration strategy has the potential to be used as targeted gene therapy in human hypertension by blocking expression of CYP 4A in kidneys AtKP1 a kinesin like protein mainly localizes to mitochondria in Arabidopsis thaliana Cheng Zhi NI Hai Qing WANG Tao XU Zhe QU Guo Qin LIU Full Text PDF Kinesins and kinesin like proteins KLPs constitute a large family of microtubule based motors that play important roles in many fundamental cellular and developmental processes To date a number of kinesins or KLPs have been identified in plants including Arabidopsis thaliana Here a polyclonal antibody against AtKP1 kinesin

    Original URL path: http://www.cell-research.com/artsmore.asp?id=95 (2016-02-14)
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  • Cell Research
    is higher than in LMP1 negative NPC epithelial cell line CNE1 and the expression is LMP1 dosage dependent Although it was reported that Survivin specifically expressed in cell cycle G 2 M phase our studies suggested that LMP1 could promote the expression of Survivin in G 0 G 1 S and G 2 M phase It also showed that Survivin and CDK4 could be accumulated more in the nuclei triggered by LMP1 More interestingly Survivin and CDK4 could form a protein complex in the nuclei of CNE LMP1 rather than in that of CNE1 which demonstrated that the interaction between these two proteins could be promoted by LMP1 These results strongly suggested that the role of LMP1 in the regulation of Survivin and CDK4 may also shed some light on the mechanism research of LMP1 in NPC Purification of full length human Pregnane and Xenobiotic Receptor polyclonal antibody preparation for immunological characterization Mallampati SARADHI Biji KRISHNA Gauranga MUKHOPADHYAY Rakesh K TYAGI Full Text PDF Pregnane and Xenobiotic Receptor PXR or Steroid and Xenobiotic Receptor SXR a new member of the nuclear receptor superfamily is thought to modulate a network of genes that are involved in xenobiotic metabolism and elimination To further explore the role of PXR in body s homeostatic mechanisms we for the first time report successful prokaryotic expression and purification of full length PXR and preparation of polyclonal antibody against the whole protein The full length cDNA encoding a 434 amino acids protein was sub cloned into prokaryotic expression vector pET 30b and transformed into E coli BL21 DE3 cells for efficient over expression The inclusion body fraction containing the expressed recombinant protein was purified first by solubilizing in sarcosine extraction buffer and then by affinity column chromatography using Ni NTA His Bind matrix The efficacy of anti PXR antibody was confirmed by immunocytology Western blot analysis EMSA and immunohistochemistry The antibody obtained was capable of detecting human and mouse PXR with high specificity and sensitivity Immunofluorescence staining of COS 1 cells transfected with human or mouse PXR showed a clear nuclear localization Results from immunohistochemistry showed that level of PXR in liver sections is immunologically detectable in the nuclei Similar to exogenously transfected PXR Western blot analysis of cell extract from HepG2 and COLO320DM cells revealed a major protein band for endogenous PXR having the expected molecular weight of 50 kDa Relevance of other immunodetectable bands with reference to PXR isoforms and current testimony are evaluated Advantages of antibody raised against full length PXR protein for functional characterization of receptor is discussed and its application for clinical purposes is envisaged Salt responsive genes in rice revealed by cDNA microarray analysis Dai Yin CHAO 1 3 Yong Hai LUO 1 3 Min SHI 1 Da LUO 1 2 Hong Xuan LIN 1 2 Full Text PDF We used cDNA microarrays containing 9 000 unigenes to identify 486 salt responsive expressed sequence tags ESTs representing 450 unigenes in shoots of the highly salt tolerant rice variety Nona Bokra Oryza

    Original URL path: http://www.cell-research.com/artsmore.asp?id=94 (2016-02-14)
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