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  • Cell Research
    Online Publication Current Issue Top 10 VOLUME 21 ISSUE 3 3 2011 375 380 Lysine methylation of promoter bound transcription factors and relevance to cancer George R Stark 1 2 Yuxin Wang 1 2 and Tao Lu 1 1 Department of Molecular Genetics Lerner Research Institute Cleveland Clinic 9500 Euclid Avenue Cleveland OH 44195 USA 2 Institute of Cancer Biology and Drug Screening School of Life Science Lanzhou University Lanzhou 730000 China Correspondence George R Stark Tel 216 444 6062 E mail starkg ccf org p53 NFκB STAT3 and several other transcription factors are reversibly methylated on lysine residues by enzymes that also modify histones The methylations of NF B and STAT3 take place when they are bound to promoters suggesting a more general model in which the binding of inducible transcription factors to DNA helps to recruit chromatin modification machinery which then may modify not only histones but also the bound transcription factors Mutations of some histone lysine methyltransferases and demethylases are linked to cancer and these mutations may alter the methylation not only of histones but also of transcription factors and thus may be tumorigenic through more than one mechanism Cell Research 2011 21 375 380 doi 10

    Original URL path: http://www.cell-research.com/arts.asp?id=387 (2016-02-14)
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  • Cell Research
    is not an inert structure but rather an instructive DNA scaffold that can respond to external cues to regulate the many uses of DNA A principle component of chromatin that plays a key role in this regulation is the modification of histones There is an ever growing list of these modifications and the complexity of their action is only just beginning to be understood However it is clear that histone

    Original URL path: http://www.cell-research.com/arts.asp?id=388 (2016-02-14)
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  • Cell Research
    Stanford University School of Medicine Stanford CA 94305 5323 USA Correspondence Gerald R Crabtree E mail crabtree stanford edu Macromolecular assemblies that regulate chromatin structure using the energy of ATP hydrolysis have critical roles in development cancer and stem cell biology The ATPases of this family are encoded by 27 human genes and are usually associated with several other proteins that are stable non exchangeable subunits One fundamental mechanism used by these complexes is thought to be the movement or exchange of nucleosomes to regulate transcription However recent genetic studies indicate that chromatin remodelers may also be involved in regulating other aspects of chromatin structure during many cellular processes The SWI SNF family in particular appears to have undergone a substantial change in subunit composition and mechanism coincident with the evolutionary advent of multicellularity and the appearance of linking histones The differential usage of this greater diversity of mammalian BAF subunits is essential for the development of specific cell fates including the progression from pluripotency to multipotency to committed neurons Recent human genetic screens have revealed that BRG1 ARID1A BAF155 and hSNF5 are frequently mutated in tumors indicating that BAF complexes also play a critical role in the initiation or

    Original URL path: http://www.cell-research.com/arts.asp?id=389 (2016-02-14)
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  • Cell Research
    1 2 Dominique Ray Gallet 1 2 and Geneviève Almouzni 1 2 1 Institut Curie Centre de Recherche Paris F 75248 France 2 CNRS UMR218 Paris F 75248 France Correspondence Geneviève Almouzni Tel 33 0 1 56 24 67 01 E mail almouzni curie fr Histone proteins wrap DNA to form nucleosome particles that compact eukaryotic genomes while still allowing access for cellular processes such as transcription replication and DNA repair Histones exist as different variants that have evolved crucial roles in specialized functions in addition to their fundamental role in packaging DNA H3 3 a conserved histone variant that is structurally very close to the canonical histone H3 has been associated with active transcription Furthermore its role in histone replacement at active genes and promoters is highly conserved and has been proposed to participate in the epigenetic transmission of active chromatin states Unexpectedly recent data have revealed accumulation of this specific variant at silent loci in pericentric heterochromatin and telomeres raising questions concerning the actual function of H3 3 In this review we describe the known properties of H3 3 and the current view concerning its incorporation modes involving particular histone chaperones Finally we discuss the functional significance of

    Original URL path: http://www.cell-research.com/arts.asp?id=390 (2016-02-14)
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  • Cell Research
    School of Medicine New York NY 10016 USA Correspondence Stephen B Baylin Tel 410 955 8506 E mail sbaylin jhmi edu Epigenetics is currently defined as the inheritance of variation genetics above and beyond epi changes in the DNA sequence Despite the fact that histones are believed to carry important epigenetic information little is known about the molecular mechanisms of the inheritance of histone based epigenetic information including histone modifications

    Original URL path: http://www.cell-research.com/arts.asp?id=391 (2016-02-14)
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  • Cell Research
    Horticulture and Landscape Architecture Department Purdue University West Lafayette IN 47907 USA Correspondence Xin Jian He Taiping Chen Tel 86 10 80707712 617 871 7414 E mail hexinjian nibs ac cn taiping chen novartis com DNA methylation is an important epigenetic mark involved in diverse biological processes In plants DNA methylation can be established through the RNA directed DNA methylation pathway an RNA interference pathway for transcriptional gene silencing TGS which requires 24 nt small interfering RNAs In mammals de novo DNA methylation occurs primarily at two developmental stages during early embryogenesis and during gametogenesis While it is not clear whether establishment of DNA methylation patterns in mammals involves RNA interference in general de novo DNA methylation and suppression of transposons in germ cells require 24 32 nt piwi interacting small RNAs DNA methylation status is dynamically regulated by DNA methylation and demethylation reactions In plants active DNA demethylation relies on the repressor of silencing 1 family of bifunctional DNA glycosylases which remove the 5 methylcytosine base and then cleave the DNA backbone at the abasic site initiating a base excision repair BER pathway In animals multiple mechanisms of active DNA demethylation have been proposed including a deaminase and DNA

    Original URL path: http://www.cell-research.com/arts.asp?id=392 (2016-02-14)
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  • Cell Research
    Advanced Online Publication Current Issue Top 10 VOLUME 21 ISSUE 3 3 2011 466 473 Genomic imprinting in mammals its life cycle molecular mechanisms and reprogramming Yufeng Li and Hiroyuki Sasaki Division of Epigenomics Department of Molecular Genetics Medical Institute of Bioregulation Kyushu University 3 1 1 Maidashi Higashi ku Fukuoka 812 8582 Japan Correspondence Hiroyuki Sasaki Tel 81 92 642 6799 E mail hsasaki bioreg kyushu u ac jp Genomic imprinting an epigenetic gene marking phenomenon that occurs in the germline leads to parental origin specific expression of a small subset of genes in mammals Imprinting has a great impact on normal mammalian development fetal growth metabolism and adult behavior The epigenetic imprints regarding the parental origin are established during male and female gametogenesis passed to the zygote through fertilization maintained throughout development and adult life and erased in primordial germ cells before the new imprints are set In this review we focus on the recent discoveries on the mechanisms involved in the reprogramming and maintenance of the imprints We also discuss the epigenetic changes that occur at imprinted loci in induced pluripotent stem cells Cell Research 2011 21 466 473 doi 10 1038 cr 2011 15 published online

    Original URL path: http://www.cell-research.com/arts.asp?id=393 (2016-02-14)
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  • Cell Research
    Gasser 1 1 Friedrich Miescher Institute for Biomedical Research Maulbeerstrasse 66 CH 4058 Basel Switzerland 2 Current address Stanford University School of Medicine Department of Structural Biology 299 Campus Drive Stanford CA 94305 5126 USA Correspondence Susan M Gasser Tel 41 61 697 5025 E mail susan gasser fmi ch Recent findings show that chromatin dynamics and nuclear organization are not only important for gene regulation and DNA replication but also for the maintenance of genome stability In yeast nuclear pores play a role in the maintenance of genome stability by means of the evolutionarily conserved family of SUMO targeted Ubiquitin ligases STUbLs The yeast Slx5 Slx8 STUbL associates with a class of DNA breaks that are shifted to nuclear pores Functionally Slx5 Slx8 are needed for telomere maintenance by an unusual recombination mediated pathway The mammalian STUbL RNF4 associates with Promyelocytic leukaemia PML nuclear bodies and regulates PML PML fusion protein stability in response to arsenic induced stress A subclass of PML bodies support telomere maintenance by the ALT pathway in telomerase deficient tumors Perturbation of nuclear organization through either loss of pore subunits in yeast or PML body perturbation in man can lead to gene amplifications deletions translocations

    Original URL path: http://www.cell-research.com/arts.asp?id=394 (2016-02-14)
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