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  • Cell Research
    Reuters 2013 Free Sample Issue Submission Advanced Online Publication Current Issue Top 10 VOLUME 21 ISSUE 6 6 2011 862 863 When inordinate tissue growth is beneficial Improving silk production by increasing silk gland size Xavier Bellés Institute of Evolutionary Biology CSIC UPF Passeig Mar韙im 37 08003 Barcelona Spain Correspondence Xavier Bellés E mail xavier belles ibe upf csic es Cell Research 2011 21 862 863 doi 10 1038 cr

    Original URL path: http://www.cell-research.com/arts.asp?id=341 (2016-02-14)
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  • Cell Research
    Sample Issue Submission Advanced Online Publication Current Issue Top 10 VOLUME 21 ISSUE 6 6 2011 864 866 MicroRNA links obesity and impaired glucose metabolism Koh Ono Department of Cardiovascular Medicine Graduate School of Medicine Kyoto University 54 Shogoin kawahara cho Sakyo ku Kyoto 606 8397 Japan Correspondence Koh Ono Tel 81 75 751 3190 E mail kohono kuhp kyoto u ac jp Cell Research 2011 21 864 866 doi

    Original URL path: http://www.cell-research.com/arts.asp?id=342 (2016-02-14)
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  • Cell Research
    Diseases National Institutes of Health Bethesda MD 20892 0540 USA Correspondence Yihong Ye E mail yihongy mail nih gov To deal with the constant challenge of protein misfolding in the endoplasmic reticulum ER eukaryotic cells have evolved an ER protein quality control ERQC mechanism that is integrated with an adaptive stress response The ERQC pathway is comprised of factors residing in the ER lumen that function in the identification and retention of aberrantly folded proteins factors in the ER membrane for retrotranslocation of misfolded polypeptides and enzymes in the cytosol that degrade retrotranslocated proteins The integrated stress response termed ER stress or unfolded protein response UPR contains several signaling branches elicited from the ER membrane which fine tune the rate of protein synthesis and entry into the ER to match the ER folding capacity The fitness of the cell particularly those bearing a high secretory burden is critically dependent on functional integrity of the ER which in turn relies on these stress attenuating mechanisms to maintain protein homeostasis or proteostasis Aberrant proteostasis can trigger cellular apoptosis making these adaptive stress response systems attractive targets for perturbation in treatment of cell malignancies Here we review our current understanding of how the

    Original URL path: http://www.cell-research.com/arts.asp?id=343 (2016-02-14)
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  • Cell Research
    kinetics Jiekai Chen Jing Liu You Chen Jiaqi Yang Jing Chen He Liu Xiangjie Zhao Kunlun Mo Hong Song Lin Guo Shilong Chu Deping Wang Ke Ding and Duanqing Pei Key Laboratory of Regenerative Biology South China Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine at Guangzhou Institutes of Biomedicine and Health Chinese Academy of Sciences Guangzhou 510530 China Correspondence Duanqing Pei Tel 86 20 3201 5201 E mail pei duanqing gibh ac cn The ectopic expression of several transcription factors can restore embryonic cell fate to cultured somatic cells and generate induced pluripotent stem cells iPSCs revealing a previously unknown pathway to pluripotency However this technology is currently limited by low efficiency slow kinetics and multi factorial requirement Here we show that reprogramming can be improved and dramatically accelerated by optimizing culture conditions First we developed an optimized defined medium iCD1 which allows Oct4 Sox2 Klf4 OSK mediated reprogramming to achieve ultra high efficiency 10 at day 8 We also found that this optimized condition renders both Sox2 and Klf4 dispensable although the elimination of these two factors leads to lower efficiency and slower kinetics Our studies define a shortened route both in timing and factor requirement toward pluripotency

    Original URL path: http://www.cell-research.com/arts.asp?id=344 (2016-02-14)
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  • Cell Research
    F Meurs 3 Rongtuan Lin 1 4 and John Hiscott 1 2 4 1 Terry Fox Molecular Oncology Group Lady Davis Institute Jewish General Hospital Montreal Quebec H3T1E2 Canada 2 Department of Microbiology and Immunology McGill University Montreal Quebec H3A 2B4 Canada 3 Department of Virology Unit of Hepacivirus and Innate Immunity Pasteur Institute Paris 75724 France 4 Department of Medicine McGill University Montreal Quebec H3A 2B4 Canada Correspondence John Hiscott Tel 514 340 8222 ext 5265 E mail john hiscott mcgill ca Recognition of viral RNA structures by the cytosolic sensor retinoic acid inducible gene I RIG I results in the activation of signaling cascades that culminate with the generation of the type I interferon IFN antiviral response Onset of antiviral and inflammatory responses to viral pathogens necessitates the regulated spatiotemporal recruitment of signaling adapters kinases and transcriptional proteins to the mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein MAVS We previously demonstrated that the serine threonine kinase IKK ε is recruited to the C terminal region of MAVS following Sendai or vesicular stomatitis virus VSV infection mediated by Lys63 linked polyubiquitination of MAVS at Lys500 resulting in inhibition of downstream IFN signaling Paz et al Mol Cell Biol 2009 In this study we demonstrate that C terminus of MAVS harbors a novel TRAF3 binding site in the aa450 468 region of MAVS A consensus TRAF interacting motif TIM 455 PEENEY 460 within this site is required for TRAF3 binding and activation of IFN antiviral response genes whereas mutation of the TIM eliminates TRAF3 binding and the downstream IFN response Reconstitution of MAVS mouse embryo fibroblasts with a construct expressing a TIM mutated version of MAVS failed to restore the antiviral response or block VSV replication whereas wild type MAVS reconstituted antiviral inhibition of VSV replication Furthermore recruitment of IKK ε to an

    Original URL path: http://www.cell-research.com/arts.asp?id=345 (2016-02-14)
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  • Cell Research
    California Keck School of Medicine Los Angeles CA 90033 USA 2 Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine Los Angeles CA 90033 USA 3 Department of Life Science University of Seoul Seoul 130 743 Korea Correspondence Wange Lu Jungmook Lyu Tel 1 323 442 1618 1 323 442 2497 E mail wangelu usc edu jungmool usc edu In embryonic stem cells ESCs Wnt responsive development related genes are silenced to maintain pluripotency and their expression is activated during differentiation Acetylation of histones by histone acetyltransferases stimulates transcription whereas deacetylation of histones by HDACs is correlated with transcriptional repression Although Wnt mediated gene transcription has been intimately linked to the acetylation or deacetylation of histones how Wnt signaling regulates this type of histone modification is poorly understood Here we report that Smek a regulatory subunit of protein phosphatase 4 PP4 complex plays an important role in histone deacetylation and silencing of the Wnt responsive gene brachyury in ESCs Smek mediates recruitment of PP4c and HDAC1 to the Tcf Lef binding site of the brachyury promoter and inhibits brachyury expression in ESCs Activation of Wnt signaling during differentiation causes disruption of the Smek PP4c HDAC1

    Original URL path: http://www.cell-research.com/arts.asp?id=346 (2016-02-14)
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  • Cell Research
    Unit of Reproductive Physiology Zhejiang Academy of Medical Sciences Hangzhou 310013 China 4 Central Research Laboratory Bethune Second Hospital of Jilin University 265 Ziqiang Street Changchun 130041 China Correspondence Enkui Duan Tel 86 10 64807182 E mail duane ioz ac cn In the journey from the male to female reproductive tract mammalian sperm experience a natural osmotic decrease e g in mouse from 415 mOsm in the cauda epididymis to 310 mOsm in the uterine cavity Sperm have evolved to utilize this hypotonic exposure for motility activation meanwhile efficiently silence the negative impact of hypotonic cell swelling Previous physiological and pharmacological studies have shown that ion channel controlled water influx efflux is actively involved in the process of sperm volume regulation however no specific sperm proteins have been found responsible for this rapid osmoadaptation Here we report that aquaporin3 AQP3 is a sperm water channel in mice and humans Aqp3 deficient sperm show normal motility activation in response to hypotonicity but display increased vulnerability to hypotonic cell swelling characterized by increased tail bending after entering uterus The sperm defect is a result of impaired sperm volume regulation and progressive cell swelling in response to physiological hypotonic stress during male female

    Original URL path: http://www.cell-research.com/arts.asp?id=347 (2016-02-14)
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  • Cell Research
    Sanyuan Ma 2 Yan Liu 1 Rong Jing Jiang 1 Qingyou Xia 2 and Sheng Li 1 1 Key Laboratory of Insect Developmental and Evolutionary Biology Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences Chinese Academy of Sciences Shanghai 200032 China 2 Key Sericultural Laboratory of Agricultural Ministry College of Biotechnology Southwest University Chongqing 400715 China Correspondence Sheng Li Qingyou Xia E mail shengli sippe ac cn xiaqy swu edu cn Sericulture has been greatly advanced by applying hybrid breeding techniques to the domesticated silkworm Bombyx mori but has reached a plateau during the last decades For the first time we report improved silk yield in a GAL4 UAS transgenic silkworm Overexpression of the Ras1 CA oncogene specifically in the posterior silk gland improved fibroin production and silk yield by 60 while increasing food consumption by only 20 Ras activation by Ras1 CA overexpression in the posterior silk gland enhanced phosphorylation levels of Ras downstream effector proteins up regulated fibroin mRNA levels increased total DNA content and stimulated endoreplication Moreover Ras1 activation increased cell and nuclei sizes enriched subcellular organelles related to protein synthesis and stimulated ribosome biogenesis for mRNA translation We conclude that Ras1 activation increases

    Original URL path: http://www.cell-research.com/arts.asp?id=348 (2016-02-14)
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