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  • Cell Research
    Laboratory of Biocontrol National Engineering Research Center of South China Sea Marine Biotechnology Department of Biochemistry College of Life Sciences Sun Yat Sen University 135 W Xingang Rd Guangzhou 510275 China Correspondence Anlong Xu Tel 86 20 39332990 E mail lssxal mail sysu edu cn The MyD88 independent pathway one of the two crucial TLR signaling routes is thought to be a vertebrate innovation However a novel Toll interleukin 1 receptor TIR adaptor designated bbtTICAM which was identified in the basal chordate amphioxus links this pathway to invertebrates The protein architecture of bbtTICAM is similar to that of vertebrate TICAM1 TIR containing adaptor molecule 1 also known as TRIF while phylogenetic analysis based on the TIR domain indicated that bbtTICAM is the oldest ortholog of vertebrate TICAM1 and TICAM2 TIR containing adaptor molecule 2 also known as TRAM Similar to human TICAM1 bbtTICAM activates NF B in a MyD88 independent manner by interacting with receptor interacting protein RIP via its RHIM motif Such activation requires bbtTICAM to form homodimers in endosomes and it may be negatively regulated by amphioxus SARM sterile a and armadillo motif containing protein and TRAF2 However bbtTICAM did not induce the production of type I interferon

    Original URL path: http://www.cell-research.com/arts.asp?id=287 (2016-02-14)
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  • Cell Research
    of Signaling and Disease Research Laboratory of Receptor based Bio medicine School of Life Sciences and Technology Tongji University Shanghai China 3 Department of Chemistry The Scripps Research Institute 10550 North Torrey Pines Road La Jolla CA 92037 USA 4 Key Laboratory of Regenerative Biology South China Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine Guangzhou Institutes of Biomedicine and Health Chinese Academy of Sciences Guangzhou China 5 Shanghai Research Center for Biomodel Organism Shanghai China 6 Institute of Biomedical Sciences and School of Life Sciences East China Normal University Shanghai China Correspondence Xin Xie Tel 86 186 0211 0377 E mail xxie mail shcnc ac cn Somatic cells can be reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells iPSCs by defined factors The low efficiency of reprogramming and genomic integration of oncogenes and viral vectors limited the potential application of iPSCs Here we report that Lithium Li a drug used to treat mood disorders greatly enhances iPSC generation from both mouse embryonic fibroblast and human umbilical vein endothelial cells Li facilitates iPSC generation with one Oct4 or two factors OS or OK The effect of Li on promoting reprogramming only partially depends on its major target GSK3 Unlike other GSK3 inhibitors

    Original URL path: http://www.cell-research.com/arts.asp?id=288 (2016-02-14)
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  • Cell Research
    Lei Zhang and Yun Zhao State Key Laboratory of Cell Biology Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences Chinese Academy of Sciences Shanghai 200031 China Correspondence Yun Zhao Lei Zhang E mail yunzhao sibs ac cn rayzhang sibs ac cn The Hedgehog Hh family of secreted proteins is essential for development in both vertebrates and invertebrates As one of main morphogens during metazoan development the graded Hh signal is transduced across the plasma membrane by Smoothened Smo through the differential phosphorylation of its cytoplasmic tail leading to pathway activation and the differential expression of target genes However how Smo transduces the graded Hh signal via the Costal2 Cos2 Fused Fu complex remains poorly understood Here we present a model of the cell response to a Hh gradient by translating Smo phosphorylation information to Fu dimerization and Cubitus interruptus Ci nuclear localization information Our findings suggest that the phosphorylated C terminus of Smo recruits the Cos2 Fu complex to the membrane through the interaction between Smo and Cos2 which further induces Fu dimerization Dimerized Fu is phosphorylated and transduces the Hh signal by phosphorylating Cos2 and Suppressor of Fu Su fu We further show that this process

    Original URL path: http://www.cell-research.com/arts.asp?id=289 (2016-02-14)
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  • Cell Research
    Graz Austria 3 Section Molecular Cellular and Pharmacobiology Institute for Pharmaceutical Biology University of Bonn Bonn Germany 4 Department of Screening and Compound Profiling GlaxoSmithKline Medicines Research Centre Gunnels Wood Road Stevenage Hertfordshire UK Correspondence Nariman A B Balenga Maria Waldhoer Tel 43 316 380 4307 E mail nariman balenga medunigraz at maria waldhoer medunigraz at The directional migration of neutrophils towards inflammatory mediators such as chemokines and cannabinoids occurs via the activation of seven transmembrane G protein coupled receptors 7TM GPCRs and is a highly organized process A crucial role for controlling neutrophil migration has been ascribed to the cannabinoid CB 2 receptor CB 2 R but additional modulatory sites distinct from CB 2 R have recently been suggested to impact CB 2 R mediated effector functions in neutrophils Here we provide evidence that the recently de orphanized 7TM GPCR GPR55 potently modulates CB 2 R mediated responses We show that GPR55 is expressed in human blood neutrophils and its activation augments the migratory response towards the CB 2 R agonist 2 arachidonoylglycerol 2 AG while inhibiting neutrophil degranulation and reactive oxygen species ROS production Using HEK293 and HL60 cell lines along with primary neutrophils we show that GPR55

    Original URL path: http://www.cell-research.com/arts.asp?id=290 (2016-02-14)
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  • Cell Research
    of Oncology 2 AIRC Tumor Immunology Unit 3 Epidemiology and Biostatistics Unit Istituto Giannina Gaslini Largo G Gaslini 5 16147 Genova Quarto Italy 4 Laboratory of Pathology Department of Experimental and Laboratory Medicine IRCCS G Gaslini Hospital Genova Italy 5 Animal Research Facility National Cancer Institute Genova Italy 6 Department of Genetics Biology and Biochemistry University of Torino Torino Italy Correspondence Annalisa Pezzolo Tel 39 010 5636342 E mail annalisapezzolo ospedale gaslini ge it Neuroblastoma NB associated endothelial microvessels EMs may be lined by tumor derived endothelial cells TECs that are genetically unstable and chemoresistant Here we have addressed the identification of TEC progenitors in NB by focusing on Octamer binding transcription factor 4 Oct 4 as a putative marker Oct 4 cells were detected in primary NB samples n 23 metastatic bone marrow aspirates n 10 NB cell lines n 4 and orthotopic tumors n 10 formed by the HTLA 230 NB cell line in immunodeficient mice Most Oct 4 cells showed a perivascular distribution with 5 of them homing in perinecrotic areas All Oct 4 cells were tumor derived since they shared amplification of MYCN oncogene with malignant cells Perivascular Oct 4 cells expressed stem cell related neural progenitor related and NB related markers including surface Tenascin C TNC that was absent from perinecrotic Oct 4 cells and bulk tumor cells TNC but not TNC HTLA 230 cells differentiated in vitro into endothelial like cells expressing vascular endothelial cadherin prostate specific membrane antigen and CD31 upon culture in medium containing vascular endothelial growth factor VEGF TNC but not TNC HTLA 230 cells formed neurospheres when cultured in serum free medium Both cell fractions were tumorigenic but only tumors formed by TNC cells contained EMs lined by TECs In conclusion we have identified in NB tumors two putative niches

    Original URL path: http://www.cell-research.com/arts.asp?id=291 (2016-02-14)
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  • Cell Research
    2 Fangrong Ding 3 Suying Cao 1 2 Seong Soo Lim 4 Yunping Dai 1 3 Ran Zhang 1 Yurui Zhang 1 Bing Lim 2 and Ning Li 1 State Key Laboratory for Agrobiotechnology College of Biological Sciences China Agricultural University Beijing 100193 China 2 Stem Cell and Developmental Biology Genome Institute of Singapore 138672 Singapore 3 Beijing Gen Protein Biotechnology Co Ltd Beijing 100193 China 4 Molecular Cytogenetics Laboratory

    Original URL path: http://www.cell-research.com/arts.asp?id=293 (2016-02-14)
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  • Cell Research
    3 Terry D Cyr 2 Tian Xu 4 and Xiaolong Yang 1 1 Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine Queen s University Kingston ON K7L 3N6 Canada 2 Centre for Vaccine Research Biologics and Genetic Therapies Directorate Health Canada Ottawa Ontario K1A 0K9 Canada 3 Department of Pediatrics University of California San Diego 9500 Gilman Drive 0735 La Jolla CA 92093 0735 USA 4 Howard Hughes Medical Institute Department of

    Original URL path: http://www.cell-research.com/arts.asp?id=294 (2016-02-14)
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  • Cell Research
    temperature at single cell level by a novel thermocouple method Changling Wang 1 Ruizhi Xu 2 Wenjuan Tian 1 5 Xiaoli Jiang 1 Zhengyu Cui 1 Meng Wang 1 Huaming Sun 1 Kun Fang 1 and Ning Gu 1 1 School of Biological Science and Medical Engineering Jiangsu Laboratory for Biomaterials and Devices State Key Laboratory of BioElectronics Southeast University Nanjing 210009 China 2 Jiangsu Institute of Metrology Nanjing 210007

    Original URL path: http://www.cell-research.com/arts.asp?id=295 (2016-02-14)
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