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  • CL Research Software Feedback Form
    Product help or documentation Ask a question or make a comment More information about a CL Research product Other all or none of the above Indicate the CL Research product demo program or free dictionary to which your feedback applies CL Research Product No CL Research Product CL Research Knowledge Management System CL Research Text Parser DIMAP Dictionary Maintenance Programs CL Research XML Analyzer CL Research Demonstration Program No CL

    Original URL path: http://www.clres.com/db/feedback.php?clrdict=wn (2016-02-11)
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  • Frame element hierarchy @ The Clog
    idea Cognizer Field Instrument Manner Means Place Purpose Time Components Created entity Creator Depictive Notice that the first six frame elements are identical whereas the last four are different In Achieving first these last four are more specialized versions of the last four in Intentionally create We can say that Created entity is a hypernym of New idea With this basic idea we created a dictionary of the 1015 distinct frame elements that have been used in FrameNet In creating this dictionary we identified all the mappings and used them to create hypernymic relations between the frame elements In addition we created a definition for each frame element as the number of frames in which the frame element is used for example the Agent frame element was used in 125 frames We then used CL Research s DIMAP to perform a digraph analysis to create a hierarchy of frame elements An example of the hierarchy that emerges is Event Behavior Means Transport means Vehicle Mode of Transportation The maximum depth is about 7 or 8 nodes The resultant digraph is an image 3 3 MB in size There are many problems in this hierarchy including Circularity Frame elements without hypernyms thus resulting in a large number of so called primitive elements Potential weak elements of hypernyms The image takes quite a while to load perhaps a few minutes in Firefox but takes less than a minute to create with DIMAP As a result it will be easy to make changes in the entries and create a new digraph The next step is to develop a set of procedures for making changes to individual entries to arrive at a consistent set Represenation of meaning digraph analysis frame elements FrameNet semantic relations You can follow any responses to this entry through the

    Original URL path: http://www.clres.com/blog/?p=30 (2016-02-11)
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  • Analyzing the frame element digraph: Initial steps @ The Clog
    to the hypernymic link within each frame element It is important to observe that such a change is a local decision as opposed to making some global design change Making a local change immediately reverberates throughout the full digraph Rerunning the digraph analysis within the DIMAP frame element dictionary only takes a few seconds Thus the primary task is to clearly lay out steps and rationales for making changes to the hypernymic links In making changes to the frame element dictionary a primary rule of thumb is that the list of frame elements should not change When I originally developed the digraph analysis technique for analyzing defining paths in a dictionary I conceived it as a mechanism that could be used by lexicographers to make changes in the dictionary This requires that a change be made to the underlying dictionary or dictionary source rather than to the derived data used for the digraph analysis For example the problem with the entry depicitive should not be solved by deleting this entry but rather by creating a hypernymic link from it to depictive When the underlying data from the FrameNet frame to frame relations is corrected a new frame element dictionary will not contain the misspelled frame element That is the digraph analysis will highlight where changes to the underlying data are needed As indicated every hypernymic link change made to the frame element dictionary needs to be clearly documented so that changes can be re applied if changes are made to the underlying data and so that the validity of the changes can be assessed by others Some initial ideas for changes are the following Analyze the six circular strong components to eliminate them e g Purpose and Reason need to be separated into two nodes to eliminate the circularity For entries with editorial variations create appropriate links that tie these frame elements to a base form There are 48 frame elements with a 1 or 2 in their names Most of these have a corresponding frame element without a number the ones with numbers can be linked to those without the number E g Entity 1 and Entity 2 can be linked to Entity Many frame elements are plurals e g Entities and there is another frame element e g Entity in a singular form Create a link from the plural form to the singular form with an implicit singular of relation from the plural to the singular Examine the definitions of the frame elements within each of their frames e g there are 125 frame element definitions for Agent particularly for the 400 frame elements that currently have no hypernymic links This analysis can include a simple examination of the frame element names e g Focal entity can be considered in relation to Entity Examine the mapping developed by O Hara Wiebe 2009 to create links between frame elements The implementation of these analysis steps will be described in future posts along with their effect on the resulting digraph

    Original URL path: http://www.clres.com/blog/?p=41 (2016-02-11)
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  • Circularities in the frame element hierarchy @ The Clog
    to Owner arose from the frame to frame relation Post getting INHERITS Possession and Pre getting INHERITS Possession which contains the Core frame element Owner The Recipient upon receipt becomes the Owner whereas being an owner does not say anything about how that ownership came about So an owner is not necessarily a recipient but may be whereas a recipient is an owner So the hypernym Recipient should be removed from Owner Purpose Reason The link between Purpose and Reason arises in the frame to frame relation Apply heat INHERITS Intentionally affect where the mapping for Apply heat shows two instances of Purpose The link between Reason and Purpose arises in the frame to frame relations Cause to move in place USES Activity ongoing where the mapping for Activity ongoing shows two instances of Purpose In both cases the links appear to have been introduced accidentally Both hypernymic links between these frame elements have been removed so that neither frame element is directly linked to the other Containing event Journey The link from Containing event to Journey arose from the frame to frame relation Quitting a place INHERITS Departing which contains the Extra thematic frame element Journey The link from Journey to Containing event arose from the frame to frame relation Departing IS SUB OF Traversing which contains the Extra thematic frame element Containing event The frame to frame relations suggest that Containing event is the more general frame element and thus to break this circularity Journey was removed as the hypernym of Containing event Evaluee Victim Patient The links among these three frame elements are Evaluee hyp Victim Victim hyp Patient and Patient hyp Evaluee The first link occurs in Corporal punishment INHERITS Cause harm the second occurs in Attack INHERITS Intentionally affect Cause harm INHERITS Transitive action Killing INHERITS Transitive action Manipulate into doing INHERITS Intentionally affect Rape INHERITS Intentionally affect and the third occurs in Grooming USES Desirability In the last mapping these are the only frame elements that are mapped out of several in each frame It seems that Patient is a more general term than Evaluee so the latter is removed as the hypernym of Patient This may also suggest that Patient is a more appropriate frame element of Desirability than Evaluee Sought entity Phenomenon The link from Sought entity to Phenomenon arose from the frame to frame relations Scouring INHERITS Scrutinizing for and Seeking PERSP ON Searching scenario both of which contains the Core frame element Phenomenon The link from Phenomenon to Sought entity arose from the frame to frame relations Appearance INHERITS Perception Becoming aware INHERITS Perception Perception active INHERITS Perception and Perception experience INHERITS Perception which contains the Core frame element Phenomenon and the Extra thematic frame element Sought entity Each of the second set of links appears to be in error in the frame to frame relations with the mappings between the frame elements Phenomenon and Ground accidentally transposed In view of this the link between Phenomenon and Sought entity was

    Original URL path: http://www.clres.com/blog/?p=60 (2016-02-11)
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  • Refining the frame element hierarchy: Application of initial steps @ The Clog
    of end state and Duration of endstate Entity 1 and Entity1 For cases involving editorial variations a choice was made as to the more correct underlying form However four frame elements were deleted Re encoding Sub region State of affairs and Hot Cold source after combining them with more standard forms Re encoding Sub region State of affairs and Hot cold source these were deleted because the program used to create the digraph image was separating the dashed forms into two nodes Frame elements with a number Although 48 frame elements had been identified with a number 1 or 2 in their names e g Entity 1 and Entity 2 changes were made to only 15 using a base form without a number In the remaining cases the entries already contained a hypernym link so these were not changed Plural forms There are 51 frame elements in a plural form ending in s or a Of these 21 did not have a singular form e g Tools Another 19 had a singular form but already had a hypernym induced from the frame to frame relations e g Members was already linked to Individuals Only 10 frame elements were linked to a singular frame element e g Recipients linked to Recipient Underscore hypernyms Approximately 500 frame elements have underscores in their names e g Dangerous entity and Location of protagonist These frame elements can be interpreted as hypernymic e g Dangerous entity is a kind of Entity and Location of protagonist is a kind of Location Approximately 150 distinct potential hypernyms were identified and each was examined Two criteria were used for the addition of a hypernym link a the frame element had no existing hypernym and b the putative hypernym is a frame element For example of 18 frame elements ending in entity Entity was added as a hypernym link in 14 In all 167 frame elements were given 82 hypernym links Circularity elimination In the first digraph generated from the frame element dictionary there were 6 strong components affecting 13 frame elements Because of the above changes an additional 4 strong components emerged In a separate post I describe how each of the circularities was broken As indicated above the application of these changes has resulted in the current digraph with 1011 frame elements in the frame element digraph containing 261 primitives compared with an original 476 primitives consisting of 202 primitives not used as hypernyms and 59 used as hypernyms in deriving 750 frame elements When viewing the current frame element hierarchy many of the links induced by the frame to frame relations seem awkward The next steps will focus on reducing the 261 primitives to a much smaller set on the order of 20 core frame elements This will be done by a closer examination of the frame element definitions as they are given in the characterization of each frame in which they appear This effort will be guided by the semantic relation inventory developed by O

    Original URL path: http://www.clres.com/blog/?p=75 (2016-02-11)
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  • Analyzing frame element definitions @ The Clog
    hypernym assignments I made one for the unused FEs and one for the used FEs both of these consisted of only the primitive FEs These files contained in tab separated fields the FE name its frame the FE type and the FE definition When I made an assignment I copied all the elements from the initial files and put them in a pair of assigned files adding the hypernym as another tab separated field after the frame element type I also modified the frame element dictionary to reflect the assignment By changing the dictionary I was able to immediately perform a new digraph analysis to determine the effect of my hypernym assignments particularly to identify any circularities that may have arisen as a result and the progress I was making When I began examining the FE definitions I found that I could make some assignments following previous steps but where I had some doubts about making the assignment based only on the frame element name When making hypernym assignments based on the FE definition a general principle is to choose the most specific rather than the most general hypernym This has the effect of spreading out the image rather than having a large number of nodes directly adjacent to the primitive I made approximately 250 hypernym assignments based on the FE definitions Many of these were quite straightforward as in the following examples Route The Route is the usual path that the Vehicle travels Hypernym Path Honoree The person for whom the Social event is held Hypernym Person Vividness The degree of detail and or immediacy of a remembered Experience Hypernym Degree Motivation The Reason for which an intentional act is performed Hypernym Reason In making these assignments the hypernym was immediately identified as being the name of another frame element in the dictionary so there was little ambiguity in making the selection In examining the definitions there eight frame elements that had no definitions These frame elements came from frames that were themselves incomplete i e they appeared to be frames in the process of development and not yet completely instantiated in FrameNet Their deletion at this time does not appear to be problematic After about one third of the FEs had been assigned hypernyms the process became somewhat more difficult Many FEs have definitions which are not really definitional such as Artist The Artist works off stage to help make the Production Accuracy This FE indicates the Accuracy of the prediction Trigger The Trigger most commonly occurs in a PP Complement headed by to Case The Case which a Trial is convened to decide Clearly these definitions are not useful in identifying an appropriate hypernym To deal with such situations I found that I could make use of an ordinary dictionary where the noun frame element element names could be looked up and where their definitions would identify a noun hypernym I chose to use an online version of the Oxford Dictionary of English in which each noun

    Original URL path: http://www.clres.com/blog/?p=86 (2016-02-11)
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  • FrameNet Frame Element Hierarchy
    Frame Element Taxonomy Frame Element Description Frame Element Top Identifier Parent Number of Definitions 0 Number of Children 12 Path to Top Top Definitions of Top Frame Type Definition

    Original URL path: http://www.clres.com/db/fetax.php?fe=Top&defs=true (2016-02-11)
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  • FrameNet Frame Element Hierarchy
    Frame Element Top Identifier Parent Number of Definitions 0 Number of Children 12 Path to Top Top Children of Top 0000000000 Top 0000000001 Act 0000000002 Cause 0000000003 Degree 0000000004 Entity 0000000005 Path 0000000006 Place 0000000007 Purpose 0000000008 Reason 0000000009 Role

    Original URL path: http://www.clres.com/db/fetax.php?fe=Top&children=true (2016-02-11)
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