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  • Contents of NODE and NODE+DIMAP
    or subsense taken from the British National Corpus or the Oxford Reading Programme many of which also identify collocations in which the headword is used Phrase Block Contains idioms and phrases in which the headword commonly appears not infrequently including phrasal variations These phrases are fully defined following the format of the definition block Derivation Block Contains undefined derivations of the headword along with their parts of speech Phrasal Verb Block Contains verb phrases that begin with a verb headword These phrases are fully defined following the format of the definition block CL Research and DIMAP Enhancements of NODE The CL Research enhancements of NODE consist of 1 the conversion program used to transform NODE data into a format suitable for upload to DIMAP dictionaries 2 DIMAP itself 3 a set of DIMAP dictionaries about 20 MB in compressed form that provide the NODE data in a machine tractable and viewable format and 4 a set of DIMAP dictionaries in which the NODE definitions have been parsed and semantic links created between the entries Conversion Program The source code in C by which NODE data were formatted for upload to DIMAP dictionaries is provided While this program is specific to the creation of DIMAP dictionaries it can easily be modified to remove the output lines and maintain the structural analysis of the NODE data This program alone justifies the additional licensing fee for NODE DIMAP DIMAP The NODE DIMAP distribution includes DIMAP itself as well as any enhancements made during the licensing period DIMAP not only enables the examination of entries sense by sense but also provides a substantial range of functionality to manipulate and examine the dictionary data including the parsing of definitions In addition DIMAP includes the functionality used by CL Research in word sense disambiguation Senseval and

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  • C O N F I D E N T I A L I T Y A G R E E M E N T
    assessment will be subject to a separate agreement to be negotiated between the Publisher and the User 2 Any development work undertaken by the User as part of the assessment is at the User s expense and risk 3 Copyright in all machine readable texts issued by the Publisher is reserved 4 Not to copy in whole or in part the Text except insofar as this may be necessary for security purposes or for the User s own assessment purposes Not to distribute the Text to third parties nor to publish or reproduce it in any way 5 To give access to the Text only to persons working directly with the User and to require of such persons signed undertakings neither to use the Text except in connection with the User s assessment purposes nor to copy or make available the Text to others these signed undertakings to be made available to the Publisher on request 6 Not to hold the Publisher liable for any errors of transcription which may be found in the Text but to notify the Publisher of such errors wherever possible 7 The User will disclose to the Publisher the nature of its research activities with the Text and where appropriate disclose samples of the User s developed versions of the Text 8 The Publisher will supply the User with an electronic copy of the Text as soon as practicable following signature of this Agreement 9 Should the User breach the terms of this agreement in anyway then the User undertakes to return or destroy at the Publisher s option the Text and all related material supplied by the Publisher and will cease to use the Publisher s confidential material thereafter and will compensate the Publisher for any loss of revenues damage to reputation or any

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  • Semantic Relations List
    more severe or complex or results in adverse effects Inverse complicated by conceptual part of Definition Conceptually a portion division or component of some larger whole Inverse has conceptual part conceptually related to Definition Related by some abstract concept thought or idea Inverse conceptually related to connected to Definition Directly attached to another physical unit as tendons are connected to muscles This includes attached to and anchored to Inverse connected to consists of Definition Is structurally made up of in whole or in part of some material or matter This includes composed of made of and formed of Inverse constitutes contains Definition Holds or is the receptacle for fluids or other substances This includes is filled with holds and is occupied by Inverse contained in degree of Definition The relative intensity of a process or the relative intensity or amount of a quality or attribute Inverse has degree derivative of Definition In chemistry a substance structurally related to another or that can be made from the other substance This is used only for structural relationships This does not include functional relationships such as metabolite of by product of nor analog of Inverse has derivative developmental form of Definition An earlier stage in the individual maturation of Inverse has developmental form diagnoses Definition Distinguishes or identifies the nature or characteristics of Inverse diagnosed by disrupts Definition Alters or influences an already existing condition state or situation Produces a negative effect on Inverse disrupted by evaluation of Definition Judgment of the value or degree of some attribute or process Inverse has evaluation exhibits Definition Shows or demonstrates Inverse exhibited by functionally related to Definition Related by the carrying out of some function or activity Inverse functionally related to indicates Definition Gives evidence for the presence at some time of an entity or process Inverse indicated by interacts with Definition Acts functions or operates together with Inverse interacts with interconnects Definition Serves to link or join together two or more other physical units This includes joins links conjoins articulates separates and bridges Inverse interconnected by isa Definition The basic hierarchical link in the Network If one item isa another item then the first item is more specific in meaning than the second item Inverse inverse isa issue in Definition Is an issue in or a point of discussion study debate or dispute Inverse has issue location of Definition The position site or region of an entity or the site of a process Inverse has location manages Definition Administers or contributes to the care of an individual or group of individuals Inverse managed by manifestation of Definition That part of a phenomenon which is directly observable or concretely or visibly expressed or which gives evidence to the underlying process This includes expression of display of and exhibition of Inverse has manifestation measurement of Definition The dimension quantity or capacity determined by measuring Inverse has measurement measures Definition Ascertains or marks the dimensions quantity degree or capacity of Inverse measured by method of Definition The

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  • to distinguish a significant component Also even if not a majority component an essential component at least several percent of the total has major component F12 2d main component of used when percentages are not specified to distinguish the primary component when this is generally known Default would be 50 main component and usually 80 has main component e g has main component steel iron likewise copper alloys brass and bronze P2 1 4 SUBPROCESS F60 13 process in acts on causes a change in performs a function in Note state in step in stage in from the UMLS relation is broken out into 13a This may be broadly used to indicate any activity which is part of a composite activity alternate form process of from UMLS especially processes in living things has process F46 18 occurs in sub activity which is not a method for which see 22b is this different from has process has subactivity has mechanism this is analogous to has method but is for non purposive processes such as physical processes to indicate some detail of how a causal effect is mediated This can be used where one wishes to indicate the eventual result of a causal chain as well as its intermediate steps mechanism of P2 2 Spatial relations Place and locations location P2 2 1 STATIC SPATIAL RELATION locations of objects F14 3 location of use this for location in not relative location for objects not activities has location adjacent in front etc Location of physical objects only location of activities is 3a e g location of farm farmhouse The frequency attribute of this relation and of performed at 3a is inherantly asymmetric a place will typically have many activities although an activity may be performed usually or exclusively at one place F17 3c rel loc of for relative locations usually for a description of the internal structure of a physical object The relative location may take the form of a locative word above below alongside front back plus loc followed by an object or location in square brackets e g rel loc of below loc ground surface R342 underground below ground has rel loc top and bottom are intended to mean those usually understood positions when an object is used as intended in a gravitational field Most objects except spheres have a well defined top and bottom This must be included in the definitions of those words and of this relation F18 3e has orientation for structural descriptions especially of vertical or horizontal parts When used with three curly brackets this describes a relative orientation and a sign must be used orientation of e g under solid body has orientation top face bottom face horizontal has orientation front face back face left face right face vertical inclined has orientation top face bottom face parallel F20 5 adjacent to distinguish also direction e g a pawn is symm in front of a king knight bishop etc at the start of a chess game Needs conditions Note that the symmetry does not imply a necessary property for the opposite direction i e adjacent to shipyard waterway but adjacent to waterway shipyard F21 5a near to includes adjacent but not necessarily symmetrical F22 6 connected to attached to not just touching symm F23 7 interconnects takes two arguments A ternary relation so we use three brackets and a plus sign interconnects a b c interconnected by interconnected by b c a F24 7a between takes two arguments as above between a b c has in middle has in middle b c a have between F25 8 surrounds for complete or almost complete encirclement surrounded by F26 9 contains is a receptacle for a substance or a vehicle to convey something e g contained in electric power live circuit live rail live wire contained in potted plant pot Thus the container does not have to be closed contained in acontains an abstract contains used for things that contain energy electricity etc This is used for cases when it is said that something is stored in a device chemical etc acontained in F27 10 traverses crosses over extends across crosses through is traversed by P2 2 2 LOCATIONS OF ACTIVITIES F15 3a performed at subtype of has location for activities For human actitivites it may have some of the character of has purpose where activities are typically performed e g performed at teaching school The location may be a place or an institution The location may be a market which can be dispersed in space performed on more specific as to location performed in has activity inverse of performed at sold at specialization of performed at equivalent to and shorthand for performed at sell obj x selling place for F16 3d works at place of work for a worker has worker point to occupation title F19 3b has habitat typical natural habitat for a natural object usually living things dwelling place habitat of F59 14d origin of where did it come from this is somewhat similar has origin to derived from 14a but here is restricted to mean original location native land e g camels are from arabia starlings come from England horses from Europe This might preferably be in an extended definition but is so closely related to the other source concepts that it is included as a primitive relation In some cases this will suggest a typical location as a fez is usually worn in eastern Mediterranean countries There may be more than one origin as with animals e g has subtype wild ox origin of India Southeast Asia gaur P2 3 TEMPORALLY RELATED time F28 11 precedes abstract succession used mostly for time succesion but in some abstract cases does not imply time as in metaphorical uses precedes front end back end not necessarily immediate succession but it is a transitive relation e g time Monday Tuesday also sequential actions follows F29 12 co occurs with symm F30 23a temporal part of for times or activities with distinguishable temporal parts has temporal part F61 st of temporal part 13a state in state in step in stage in not biological Rather than a process this stage is intended as an event with a defined time frame has state lawsuit trial has state see 24 developmental form for biological Note state and stage are different concepts these relations should be separated F31 23f has temporal loc time of occurrence Analogous to location of for spatial location temporal loc of F32 44 has commencement point to verbs begin to x commencement of point to verb nominalization F33 44a has beginning for nouns e g has beginning day morning beginning of One unresolved problem is how much else is implied by this relation If it is a necessary beginning it should also be a requirement and the main action should follow obligatorily But until that is resolved sometimes several relations are included for clarity e g has beginning holding in the hand result of holding in the hand follows holding 2 requires holding 2 grasping F34 44b has ending for nouns ending of F35 44c has termination for verbs or nominalized verbs termination of verb or nominalized verb P2 4 CAUSALLY OR FUNCTIONALLY RELATED cause except for location where activities are perfomed see location F36 15 causes sine qua non Result may be state object action caused by F37 has consequence similar to caused by but used for properties where a natural association rather than causation by action is the actual meaning We can say because but not because of an action consequence of e g consequence of unimportance inutility R645 Where there is an ambiguity the consequence may be made more specific has consequence o the consequence for the object patient of an action This is ambiguous between direct and indirect object in some cases but should be able to be resolved by the type of the object has consequence s the consequence for the subject agent of an action F38 entails implies somewhat similar to has consequence Usually for verbs or nominalized verbs points to another action logically implied by the concept This is stronger than causes in that the concept entailed is a necessary accompaniment of the entailing concept e g entails preservation persistence if something is preserved it must also persist entailed by F39 15a mcauses motivation or causation in the mental realm e g Although physical causes must precede their effects a mental cause may come after its effect if it is a goal mcaused by mcause of reasoning processes M5 4 belief to distinguish the process from the result for motives or other mental reasons See also 19b has expression a more specific subtype Used loosely e g mcauses fatigue seek obj refreshment i e fatigue causes an agent to seek refreshment This is related to has purpose when used in relation to human actions the combination of relations has purpose and causes means that an action has a certain purpose and sometimes succeeds F40 21 result of usually points to an action The result may be of several types e g the result of learning R539 may be knowledge or skill but may also be a scholar or an expert This result will not be creation of a physical object which is treated in section P2 4 1 below But changes in the character of an object may be included here has result usually a state or an event also result may be an object with certain new characteristics e g giving transforms an object into a gift so has result giving gift F158 49 causative agent of point to disease for disease producing organisms has causative agent etiologic agent pathogen F159 51 has legal effect the result of a legal action may be a state or an action legal effect of e g has legal effect annulment never married unmarried P2 4 1 EFFECT PARTIAL CAUSE F41 16 affects catalyses inhibits physical effect affected by depends upon influenced by physical and mental should subdivide into a alter influence modify b regulate meter e g oxygen permits combustion combustion requires oxygen essential condition adequate water depth permits a boat to float move Unlike the distinction between mental and physical causes this relation is used for both More specific affects are below F45 16a factor in important factor for non physical effects as in 16 e g under R124 oldness factor in primogeniture has factor in some cases the notation causes and factor in are essentially identical F42 changed by more specific form of affected by changed by sequence permutation changes helps more specific than affects but for qualitative effects not properly characterized by increased by helped by hurts similar to helps with negative effects hurt by This concept will in some cases be similar to causes hurts x causes damage to x F43 16b increased by subtype of affected by increases The thing that increases something else will generally be an action e g increases temperature increase vapor pressure F47 64 prevents condition or object preventing an action or process blocking an action prevented by e g prevented by vision M6 1 2 7 3 1 invisibility prevented by harm M7 1 2 1 2 2 2 precaution watchfulness F48 16c decreased by subtype of affected by reduced by decreases F49 inhibited by for enzyme inhibitors and similar also for inhibition of human action inhibits This relation is similar to saying that something makes and action difficult e g We have relations causes barrier difficulty of action R680 R704 inhibits barrier action R680 These are closely related but we would not say that an inhibitor makes an enzymatic reaction difficult it actually makes it slow So we may use both relations in some cases need P2 4 1 1 REQUIREMENT F62 22a needs physical object or phenomenon required for some physical phenomenon or activity other than manipulative activity as in 22 e g needed for gravitation hydroelectric power Closely related to caused by needed for As an example of the relation between this and has requirement Under hearing needs audible sound P2 6 1 4 has requirement has property audible sound P2 6 1 4 audibility F63 52a has precondition for verbs or nominalized verbs related to but more specific than entailment in that the precondition is implied in the action The precondition should be a state or property precondition of similar to required for F64 22c required for point to enabled action or function has requirement ability or capacity human or machine to perform the action OR an action which is a prerequisite for another action For the lexical function expressing the able or ible property we specifically use the requires inverse requires used to generate the able or ible forms from verbs requires move movable This specific inverse may also be considered as a lexical relation i e a relation which generates one morphological form from another The other requirement relations do not necessarily imply that the lexical forms will be morphologically related The able forms can usually be generated by a morphological analyser or generator and are ony used when 1 the relation is not obvious or 2 the able forms need to be included because they are used in other relations or even just for completeness F65 22d required for subj point to enabled action or function has subj requirement ability or capacity human or machine to perform the action F66 22e required for obj point to enabled action or function has obj requirement ability or capacity human or machine to be susceptible to the action F67 22g susceptible to point to an action to which the object or human is susceptible e g susceptible to dupe deception differs from 22c above in not being a requirement facilitated on points to an object with a particular character facilitates point to an action facilitated by a trait or property facilitated by point to a property or action facilitating an action predisposes to subtype of facilitates for human traits or emotions similar to mcauses for actions F68 mfacilitates point to a human action made more likely by a human trait mfacilitated by point to a trait which facilitates some human action by the person possessing that trait P2 4 2 PRODUCTION GENERATION F94 17f hcreates mostly for human roles people who make things or cause them to become existent Also for direct parents of living things even non human This includes paternity Also used for companies and animals who make things of non substance type produces is for substances Note that this is the primary creator the one usually attributed with creation or manufacture An assistant in the process is under 17g assistant Also used for abstract things created such as rights Originally This included procreate i e biological reproduction which is recognized by the living object of creation correction procreation is now begets see next entry created by F95 17j begets biological parentage procreation begotten by F50 14 produces from UMLS I yields secretes generates emits BUT notice that what is produced by a biological process may also be produced by non biological processes so this is not to be interpreted as the only method of production Also if the product is a type with subtypes not all subtypes are necessarily produced by the process unless a is used as modifier Best interpretation is may be produced by produced by We restrict this to biological products of substance type as oils fats fibers or special structures such as spores The producer may be an organism or a specific substructure of the organism see subtypes forms emits generates product of produces honeybee honey codes for specialized to molecular genetics Point to RNA or protein coded by DNA or RNA coded by F51 21b formed by point to an action or process which results in a physical object with particular characteristics for manufacturing use has product The physical object has acquired certain characteristics from the process Exclude biological products which are under produces eg g under physical solid formed by P2 6 1 3 8 crystallization precipitation crystal growth gelling gelation thickening concretion coagulation Also used for structures created by non human living things e g forms termite colony termite mound forms spider spider web forms aformed by same as formed by but for abstract objects including mental objects aforms F52 14e generates produces yields mostly physical or chemical processes which are not specificaly industrial e g generates vaporization gas Also physical objects which produce things Also abstract production such as generates investment return on investment for the second sense see also aforms generated by F53 14c emits light radiation power electricity of batteries effluents discharges smoke Also sounds from inanimate or animate objs Note that this means that the object can emit but does not necessarily always emit e g when turned off emitted by point to the source of the thing emitted F54 14a has product mostly for manufacturing processes broadly e g product of copy copying duplication product of P2 4 2 1 CONVERSION F55 14b derived from RW 1 0 I extracted from distilled into generally but not only industrial processes Also hides e g leather derived from cow food from food animals derived from fruit fruit tree processed into inverse there can be many derivatives of a starting material similar to produces Therefore this relation must be interpreted as sometimes processed into even when no modifier is present e g processed into tree lumber This is also used for other processes when no other relation seems apt e g derived from document blank document blank blank sheet processed into dough bread For some materials both processed into and consists of seems appropriate has part elephant tusk consists of tusk processed into tusk ivory Note For the method used in processes as a temporary measure until a more integrated notation is developed we use the used in relation with the name of the process and the word processing as arguments e g used in baking processing obj dough product bread to express baking is used to process dough into bread As with other modifiers on arguments the interpretation of the modifiers to processing in this example must be interpreted by the processing attached procedures F56 14b2 convertible into for fungible items MOney into wealth cash like instruments Needed Similar to processed into but more abstract and symmetric If our logic concludes that something is convertible into itself that s OK Money is convertible into money F57 14f evolved from can be used for gradual processes including mental or physical evolved into F58 14g transformed into natural process of transformation transformed from F151 st of 14g 20a metabolite of for natural biochemical pathways has metabolite F150 20 derivative of I chemicals only includes analog not metabolite has derivative can it be symmetric for analogs P2 4 3 DESTRUCTION F89 22f uses up an item consumed by a machine or other physical object in performing its function the item may be totally used up or converted into something else Similar to 21a consumes but for objects uses up weapon ammunition uses up hearth fire fireplace fuel use up by the device using the expendable item F90 21a consumes similar to 22f but for actions point to physical object changed by the action e g consumes eating food consumed by point to an action P2 4 4 MANIFESTATION F69 19a manifestation of observable gives evidence of underlying process has manifestation symptom will be a separate category for Hithes broadly used for physical and mental e g manifestation of choice R600 discretion volition F80 evidence of for cases where topic of manifestation of exhibits expression of representation are not apropriate has evidence may point to a document which is evidence of a right or event such as a deed or testimony F74 19b expression of activity characteristic of a human trait has expression point to action or result This implies mcauses but is more specific lexpression of for linguistic expression of ideas emotions has lexpression we also use has symbol in some cases these two need to be more precisely differentiated F75 19c symptom of restrict this to disease has symptom F76 19d mach symptom of evidence of mechanical malfunction has mach symptom F77 3b exhibits points to activity which is characteristic of a physical entity usually a behavior of a living thing in UMLS behavior of animals slightly different usage from UMLS here plants also have behavior Internal biological functions are related as has process 13 For physical actions of non living things use has action for humans this may be appropriate with feelings hperforms will usually be the proper relation for actions exhibited by F78 23c has action salient action of physical object or some verbal action of abstract object other than function which is primarily for for the purpose of an artifact has action liquid flow stream has action soft object bending yielding Also used in certain cases where some abstract object is the subject of a verb e g under vindicate has action excuse justify warrant be an excuse for be a justification for be a good reason for lend a color furnish a handle the action may even be stative The use in abstract situations is to allow comprehension of phrases where certain abstract objects are the subject of verbs e g has action surroundings surround paction of physical object object with this behavior as a salient characteristic Primarily used with verbs as first argument action of for more abstract actions as action of preceding precursor i e a precursor precedes something else At the early stages of building this semantic network these actions i e verbs associated with objects will be the most salient associated verbs At a later stage when a more comprehensive list of collocations is developed the collocations will not necessarily be indicated by semantic relations such as these listed here but will comprise a separate part of the lexical entry for each word F73 46 has execution used to distinguish an abstract process or activity from the word used to describe its actual implementation example a play is an abstract process and the execution is called a performance execution of P2 5 INSTRUMENTAL FUNCTIONS USAGE P2 5 1 FUNCTIONS F83 17b has function function or purpose of an artifact other than powered machines Includes chemicals drugs The function may be a verb or nominalized verb Every function specified by this relation is an implied subtype of process function of artifact with that function e g a stool has the function support F81 17 carries out executes a function performs an activity carried out by other than humans other than measures e g powered machinery This is similar to has function but is used for machines which have internal motive sources and may be thought of as performing the function by themselves F82 17a measures machine instrument or method to measured by measure a value e g measured by depth sounding sound sounding line This can also be used for visualisation which is not quantitative e g measured by microscopic object microscope Note that this relation could be expressed as a function and is therefore not necessary measure ruler length is equal to has function ruler measure obj length This relation is a convenience to avoid potentially long chains of nested parentheses in the function relation F84 17i has biofunction biological function of parts of living things biofunction of P2 5 2 USE F85 22 uses tools instruments devices needing active manipulation during function Also chemicals for which the function is not a purpose of manufacture Also structures used as passive support e g roads for travel Also methods where has method is not correct For methods 22b We count body parts like the hand as a tool for this relation First argument may be person or activity used in point to activity or some desired effect used by point to person where a tool or method is typically used by a certain type of person used at typical location of use of an object use loc of point to object used at that location e g under propulsion verbs we have used in hand throw fling cast pitch chuck toss jerk heave shy hurl F86 22h used as a use for a natural product used by people which is not its natural function use for has subtype protease use for tenderizer pepsin F88 22i has purpose for laws procedures regulations plans human actions in general when has method is not appropriate Point to a goal purpose of point to a law regulation activity etc may be inistinguishable from has method P2 5 3 Method F87 22b method for a method as a means to achieve a goal The goal to be achieved is the first argument Also for verbs expressing methods this relation points to a sub method very similar to has purpose By default any method will not be an exclusive method has method goal achieved by such means e g has method goal R620 method way manner very similar to purpose of but used for procedures has method when used with actions as a first argument may be indistinguishable from has subtype In such cases the main criterion for choosing one or the other will be whether we want to inherit characteristics from the parent type e g under get earn and win might be considered subtypes but are classified as methods to get has method get mode of by working M7 3 5 4 1 conceptual part of deserve R924 earn has method get has result contest R720 lottery R156 win has method criticism R856 satire ridicule Note has method may extend several layers a method may include several sub methods and the layering of methods will have no arbitrary limit on depth Thus this appears to be a transitive relation but a method3 of a method2 of a method1 may only accomplish method2 and not method1 P2 6 HUMAN ROLES see also works at F93 50 participant in a subtype of hperforms above but used for cases where the activity is performed by more than one person and the individual has a specific label The action may not be directly caused by the participant The activity may be a state such as marriage The use of this relation implies that there is more than one agent involved has participant usually a person e g has participant wedding bride groom officiator has participant marriage R903 M8 3 1 1 15 married person num 2 spouse F91 17c hperforms mostly for human roles except occupations performs an activity In some cases the activity may also be performed by animals but animal behavior should be typically under exhibits domain agent R690 range action R680 This can be broadly used for any agent including non human animals mythical creatures and God performed by point to a human role other than an occupation for occupation see sub relation 17d job of This is a specialization of has participant the general term for an actor F92 17k studied by point to human type who studies a field similar to job of without the implication of being paid as with academic disciplines hstudies point to field of study See also hcreates and begets under production F96 17g assists with broadly someone or some organization who assists with the creation of something or with execution of a process This is distinguished from the prime mover who creates something or directs presides over a process assisted by F97 partner of similar to assists with but for situations where two people participate in an activity and the participants are referred to by specific names has partner F98 17d has job activity of person with that occupational title eg plumbing is performed by a plumber scientific investigation by a scientist job of point to an occupation title administers for authorities with specific jurisdictions administered by point to authority name F99 17e sells merchants and their wares also for establishments companies stores sold by F100 17h has trait point to a character trait possessed by that person trait of point to a person or numan group with that character trait possesses for abstract possession of rights duties information This is a supertype of owns possessed by F101 62 owned by subtype of possesses for ownership of property point to a person legal person organization or subtype type of one of those e g owned by wealth rich man wealthy person owns the thing owned may be a physical object or a sellable right F102 55 has agent point to a role which is used as an agent or advocate for a person agent of person who uses that agent has agent advertiser advertising agency P2 7 CONCEPTUALLY RELATED F103 has relation used to specify the names of relations between objects This signifies that the relation word specified will often be followed by the word of which will mark a special concept often unique which is in the relation specified by the relation word relation between The directed relation a R9 will often be a named supertype of the relation name specified by this relation F104 23 conceptual part of This is frequently used for case relations for verbs or nouns Sometimes used as a temporary marker until a more specific relation can be specified In general it is used where part of is inappropriate since that relation implies an easily recognizable part distinguishable and sometimes separarable from other parts Conceptual part should not be separable and may be difficult to disentangle or distinguish from other parts state step stage are under functional relations other than temporal part has conceptual part Sometimes it seems difficult to distinguish between subtype and conceptual part as in under activity R682 has conceptual part fast R274 quick prompt yare obs3 instant ready alert spry sharp smart This suggests that conceptual part can form a continuum in importance until the part may become the predominant underlying concept F105 9 has case when a certain filler for a case of a verb or nominalized verb is implied e g journey case of destination val holy place pilgrimage hajj case of this less specific than some other types of relations and similar to has conceptual part but implies that the case filler is so strongly associated with the concept that it must be considered as an integral part of the concept This will affect the strength of the relation This may be used for other than verbs or nominalized actions but should be avoided there F114 23d has patient typical object of an action point to a noun This relation will probably be superseded by a more comprehensive list of verb object collocations when these are available has spatient sub patient For cases where a part of a physical object is the patient of an action and we wish to specify both the whole object and the affected part The implication is that there is only one patient even though there may be both a has patient and a has spatient relation patient of point to an action verb or nominalization F106 has marker similar to has symbol but used to point to words that are case markers for certain concepts e g Prep has marker reason because of due to on account of by reason of for the sake of in some cases a context is indicated marker for F107 10 has tobject a special case of case this points to a typical object of a verb or nominalized verb e g desire has tobject desideratum tobject of F108 has target for ditransitive verbs point to the indirect object oblique object usually a person for verbs of giving telling has target transmission intended recipient target of Also used to specify a case for some other conceptual verbs with indirect objects that partake of motion to has target classification category R75 P2 7 1 TOPIC F79 19e topic of point to a document or other communication or agreement treating the subject topic of law written law This is a more specific subtype of has patient for communications Also used for thoughts or feelings This might also be expressed as about concerning treats subject point to subject treated Answers the question what s it about e g under danger topic of warning R668 alarm R669 and under undertaking an action topic of undertaking R768 undertaking engagement compact c R769 see also meaning of above F120 27 assesses evaluates estimates appraises assessed by more general than measures 17a e g assessed by quantity measure F121 28 studies inquires into any field of study ology studied in F122 29 issue in point of discussion dispute UMLS also important concept in any matter has concern F109 has branch for subbranches of field of study branch of P2 7 2 REPRESENTATION has meaning for commununications point to the meaning meaning of F70 28a representation of a visual representation two or three dimensional of an object to assist understanding a model e g has representation solar system orrery has representation Also used for textual representation e g has representation subject matter title F71 28b symbol of usually a formal symbol representing a concept These may be graphic linguistic visual or behavioral Some informal symbols has symbol e g has symbol enzyme has subtype suffix ase also has symbol kingship crown also has symbol mourning widow s weeds has symbol concept word 1 phrase description F72 formula of chemistry only chemical formula a type of symbol has formula P2 7 3 APPLICABILITY F110 57 applies to domain of application or influence of a concept such as a law including physical and chemical laws ruled by rule applying in that domain ruled by geopolitical division P2 3 1 1 6 4 1 government legal authority valid during point to tie period during which concept is valid or applies For concpets such as rentals valid during a term This may be a subtype of co occurs with e g co occurs with validity of option R737 option period period for P2 7 4 PROPERTY F111 23b has property salient property usually of a physical object Almost any adjective can be a property property of object with this character as a salient character The property may be a noun or an adjective The objects are primarily nouns For animals property can include dead meaning that we are referring to a dead animal Therefore a person can have a property even if he is not alive e g has instance scientist property of dead famous Einstein death is also a developmental stage but as a characteristic of people we usually use has property state of predominantly for humans who can be described as being in a specific condition or state The state is that at R7b has state e g state of freedom free man state of serfdom serf This can also be expressed as has subtype condition of serf R7b serfdom A special use of has property is for tagging roles which are assigned the property roleness Attached to this roleness property may be the object to wwhich the role word stands in the role relation has property father mother parent roleness to child has property foreign country roleness to citizen This can be glossed as saying anything with roleness plays a role relative to another object F113 23e has mode for verbs a modifier specifying mode to distinguish one variant of an action from another e g has subtype travel mode of on foot walk Usually the mode will be an adverb also used to derive adverbs from verbs has mode encrypt cryptographic Also to define certain adverbs e g has mode individual action by oneself individually alone singly solo on one s own by one s lonesome coll mode of The same effect can be obtained by using a word modifier as in has subtype

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  • About @ The Clog
    camera CL Research is committed to making alphabetic dictionaries of publicly available lexical resources and tools for accessing and using these resources To improve these resources we frequently engage our network of lexicographers and lexicologists We would appreciate it if you would honor our efforts with a moderate donation via secure PayPal Leave a Reply Click here to cancel reply Name required Mail will not be published required Website XHTML You can use these tags a href title abbr title acronym title b blockquote cite cite code del datetime em i q cite strike strong Categories Select Category Construction patterns 2 Content Analysis 1 digraph analysis 7 Electronic dictionaries 4 Usage examples 2 Prepositions 5 Represenation of meaning 2 Semantic Analysis 1 Uncategorized 2 Semantic Primitives 1 word sense disambiguation 4 Tags cognitive neuroscience collocational features computational lexicons dictionary clues digraph analysis Firth maxim frame to frame relations frame elements FrameNet inference steps MCCA meaning fragments natural language processing ontologies preposition classes preposition complements preposition meaning representation of meaning semantic dependency graphs semantic relations semantic role features sentence dictionary strong components syntactic features taxonomies tweets Twitterverse word sense disambiguation word sketches Lexicon ACL SIGLEX CL Research The Preposition Project February

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  • Fulfilling the Firthian Maxim @ The Clog
    extent to which the lexicographers have been consistent in characterizing the company a word keeps To perform this task we use the following steps Extracting the instances from a resource s data for each sense keeping track of whatever properties the resource uses to characterize a sense and collecting all the examples that have been associated with the sense Tagging the instances to obtain a set of part of speech tags and the lemmas for each token doing so with a single tagger so that results across resources can be compared Analyzing the tags to locate the target word and to identify other phrases that stand in particular syntactic structure to the target and identifying the heads of such phrases and Comparing two resources to determine the extent to which the profile of the analyses for each sense corresponds to each other over all senses The last two steps form the essence of satisfying the Firthian maxim characterizing the company a word keeps Clearly both steps can become quite involved We have only scratched the surface in our development of appropriate methods hopefully at least providing a proof of concept that this approach will be useful Our analysis has involved several prominent lexical resources the Oxford Dictionary of English ODE sentence dictionary the Pattern Dictionary of English Verbs PDEV the Dictionary of Analysed Texts of English DANTE FrameNet FN and WordNet using SemCor We have only examined one word abandon in its verb senses and have thus far only used one criterion its object as the basis for the tag analysis and the resource comparison These resources have the following properties ODE 7 senses 118 sentences PDEV 7 senses 228 sentences DANTE 9 senses 50 sentences FN 3 senses 20 sentences WN 5 senses 19 sentences Each sense in each resource is identified as having a noun phrase object However the object is not always immediate since the verb in the corpus instances is frequently in the passive voice where the surface subject is actually the object of the verb or used as a past participle modifying a noun taken to be the object The tag analysis attempts to find these objects and in our preliminary implementation succeeded in about half the cases We used the lemma corresponding to the head of the noun phrase as the basis for comparing the five resources The comparison looked at two resources at a time arraying the senses of each with the other counting the number of heads in common for each cell in the matrix Our analysis yielded several observations Lexicographically well drawn sense inventories ODE PDEV and DANTE were generally consistent with each other with common heads intersecting in a single sense When sense inventories differing in size were mapped e g PDEV and DANTE common heads intersected in more than one sense suggesting that the inventory with the larger number of senses had split senses that had been lumped by the other inventory i e addressing the issue of sense

    Original URL path: http://www.clres.com/blog/?p=209 (2016-02-11)
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  • Category » Usage examples « @ The Clog
    the rest of this entry Usage examples word sense disambiguation Firth maxim Electronic dictionaries of the future Posted in August 5 2009 4 42 pmh Ken 1 Comment Current electronic dictionaries are presently little more than transcriptions of paper dictionaries To be sure they have a lot more information than is present in the print versions But they are not really designed to support natural language processing The major needs of the future are 1 a set of instances illustrating each sense of Read the rest of this entry Construction patterns Electronic dictionaries Represenation of meaning Usage examples word sense disambiguation frame elements FrameNet semantic dependency graphs sentence dictionary Categories Select Category Construction patterns 2 Content Analysis 1 digraph analysis 7 Electronic dictionaries 4 Usage examples 2 Prepositions 5 Represenation of meaning 2 Semantic Analysis 1 Uncategorized 2 Semantic Primitives 1 word sense disambiguation 4 Tags cognitive neuroscience collocational features computational lexicons dictionary clues digraph analysis Firth maxim frame to frame relations frame elements FrameNet inference steps MCCA meaning fragments natural language processing ontologies preposition classes preposition complements preposition meaning representation of meaning semantic dependency graphs semantic relations semantic role features sentence dictionary strong components syntactic features taxonomies tweets Twitterverse

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