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  • Activity Prepositions
    thro 8 2a completed activity thro 9 2b activity frequently tedious thru 8 2a completed activity thru 9 2b activity frequently tedious under 14 5 under cover of 2 1a activity decoy up to 7 5 occupied or busy with upon 14 7 a journey upon 19 9 engaged in Proposed Activity the complement identifies an activity that is being proposed as suggested by the preposition on the point of 1 1 anticipated activity up for 1 1 available for activity up for 2 2 considered for activity up for 3 3 due for activity up for 4 4 ready to take part in activity up to 5 3a capable or fit for Activity Avoided the complement identifies an activity that is being avoided as suggested by the preposition frae 11 8 activity prevented from 11 8 activity prevented off 5 3a activity abandoned out of 8 7 activity ended outta 8 7 activity ended past 4 3 activity abandoned short of 3 1b activity avoided Selection Criteria References Quirk R Greenbaum S Leech G and Svartik J 1985 A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language Longman New York Comments to Ken Litkowski Modified August 22 2015 15 13 13 PDEP Activity Class 35 senses Preposition Sense Srtype Supersense Classed Count Pct NF pon 14 7 Journey Locus Yes 0 100 0 0 19 pon 19 9 Activity Activity Yes 0 100 0 0 19 at 8 4a Skill Activity Yes 2 100 0 154 43 behind 6 3a ThingOrchestrated Yes 48 100 0 221 06 frae 11 8 ThingPrevented Activity Yes 0 100 0 0 19 from 11 8 ThingPrevented Theme Yes 26 100 0 2170 71 in 11 8 ActivityReferenced Circumstance Yes 21 100 0 7790 70 in 8 6 ProfessionAspect ProfessionalAspect Yes 9 100 0 3338 87

    Original URL path: http://www.clres.com/db/classes/ClassActivity.php (2016-02-11)
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  • Backdrop Prepositions
    the contrary below 5 n camouflaging appearance beneath 6 2c an appearance considering 1 1 accompanying circumstances contrary to 1 1 conflicting with despite 1 1 for all 1 1 despite in case of 1 1 possible circumstances in contravention of 1 1 violates provisions of in face of 1 1 circumstances overcome in face of 2 1a despite in the face of 1 1 circumstances overcome in the face of 2 1a despite in spite of 1 1 in the teeth of 1 1 weather opposing in the teeth of 2 1a an opposing force neath 6 2c an appearance notwithstanding 1 1 under 5 2b an appearance under cover of 1 1 thing camouflaging underneath 2 2 thing camouflaging up against 2 1a an opposing circumstance Negative the complement identifies something that might be expected but is missing i e unaccompanied by absent 1 1 thing missing bare of 1 1 thing missing failing 1 1 in absence of that in default of 1 1 thing missing in default of 2 n obligation minus 2 1a thing missing off 6 3b abstaining from off 7 4 dislike of food out of 9 n not in a state or condition outta 9 n not in a state or condition sans 1 1 thing not present short of 5 n thing missing without 1 1 thing not present Selection Criteria References Quirk R Greenbaum S Leech G and Svartik J 1985 A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language Longman New York pp 705 9 Comments to Ken Litkowski Modified August 22 2015 15 15 23 PDEP Backdrop Class 63 senses Preposition Sense Srtype Supersense Classed Count Pct NF pon 20 10 Drug State Yes 0 100 0 0 19 absent 1 1 ThingMissing Yes 0 100 0 0 19 after 11 n ThingContrasting Yes 19 100 0 597 25 amid 2 1a Backdrop Yes 203 100 0 102 57 amidst 2 1a Backdrop Yes 208 100 0 38 58 apart from 2 2 ThingSupplemented Elements Yes 94 100 0 134 75 as well as 1 1 ThingSupplemented Yes 181 100 0 1423 82 at 7 4 Condition State Yes 27 100 0 2084 77 bare of 1 1 ThingMissing Yes 9 100 0 1 67 behind 2 1a ThingCamouflaged Possessor Yes 58 100 0 267 11 below 5 n ThingCamouflaging Yes 9 100 0 17 67 beneath 6 2c ThingCamouflaging Yes 51 100 0 48 32 beside 3 2 ThingSupplemented Yes 16 100 0 11 06 besides 1 1 ThingSupplemented Elements Yes 247 100 0 85 77 considering 1 1 Circumstances Yes 39 100 0 12 59 contrary to 1 1 ThingContrasting Yes 248 100 0 147 02 despite 1 1 ThingContrasting Circumstance Yes 250 100 0 1661 65 failing 1 1 OutcomeDesired Yes 0 100 0 0 19 for all 1 1 ThingContrasting Yes 25 100 0 74 72 forbye 1 1 ThingSupplmented Yes 0 100 0 0 19 given 1 1 Circumstances Yes 0 100 0 0 19

    Original URL path: http://www.clres.com/db/classes/ClassBackdrop.php (2016-02-11)
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  • Cause Prepositions
    of 2 1a target missed to 8 3 1 person affected by governor toward 2 1a goal or end state approached toward 4 2 target of behavior toward 4 2 1 target of attitude towards 2 1a goal or end state approached towards 4 2 target of behavior towards 4 2 1 target of attitude upon 11 5 target or goal within sight of 2 1a thing attainable Source or Origin the complement identifies the source or origin of the governor frae 10 7 origin separation frae 10 7 1 start state for waking or healing frae 13 10 information source from 10 7 origin separation from 10 7 1 start state for waking or healing from 13 10 information source out of 1 1 outta 1 1 with 16 10 origin separation Selection Criteria References Quirk R Greenbaum S Leech G and Svartik J 1985 A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language Longman New York pp 695 8 Comments to Ken Litkowski Modified August 22 2015 15 17 06 PDEP Cause Class 89 senses Preposition Sense Srtype Supersense Classed Count Pct NF gainst 11 n TargetOfBehavior Yes 0 100 0 0 19 pon 11 5 Target Goal Yes 0 100 0 0 19 after 1 1 1 Cause Explanation Yes 53 100 0 1666 02 after 7 3 TargetOfPursuit Yes 3 100 0 94 30 against 11 n TargetOfBehavior Yes 13 100 0 278 66 agin 11 n TargetOfBehavior Yes 0 100 0 0 19 all for 1 1 ThingFavored Yes 40 100 0 7 42 all over 3 2 ObjectOfAffection State Yes 0 100 0 1 32 as far as 3 n GoalApproached Yes 9 100 0 11 55 at 10 5a TargetOfAction Direction Yes 4 100 0 308 85 at 12 n Employer ProfessionalAspect Yes 13 100 0 1003 78 at 9 5 TargetOfAction Goal Recipient Yes 27 100 0 2084 77 at the heels of 1 1 TargetOfPursuit Yes 5 100 0 0 93 because of 1 1 Cause Explanation Yes 250 100 0 1733 62 behind 5 3 PartySupported Yes 13 100 0 59 87 by courtesy of 2 1a Cause Yes 10 100 0 1 85 by reason of 1 1 Cause Yes 228 100 0 42 29 by virtue of 1 1 Cause Explanation Yes 250 100 0 117 42 courtesy of 2 1a Cause Yes 56 100 0 10 39 due to 1 1 PartyOwed Yes 7 100 0 32 55 due to 2 2 Cause Explanation Yes 96 100 0 446 47 due to 3 3 Cause Yes 89 100 0 413 91 for 1 1 ThingFavored Beneficiary Experiencer Theme Topic Yes 27 100 0 4292 54 for 3 3 Beneficiary Beneficiary Yes 46 100 0 7313 22 for 4 3a Employer ProfessionalAspect Yes 18 100 0 2861 69 for 5 4 Purpose Attribute Function Purpose Theme Yes 121 100 0 19236 94 for 6 5 Cause Circumstance Explanation Purpose Reciprocation Yes 39 100 0 6200 34 for the benefit of

    Original URL path: http://www.clres.com/db/classes/ClassCause.php (2016-02-11)
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  • Agent Prepositions
    responsible or cognizant party per 4 n authority under 8 4 agent controlling under the heel of 1 1 agent controlling with 14 8a using services of Involved party the complement identifies a party that could be responsible for an action and would then be an agent or is otherwise involved in the action pon 11 5 1 party experiencing behind 7 4 after departure or death of beyond 8 4a party flummoxed by 21 7 party accepting by 22 8 party invoked usually God care of 1 1 receiver of mail for 2 2 1 party experiencing on 11 5 1 party experiencing saving 2 2 party respected up to 6 4 party responsible upon 11 5 1 party experiencing with 8 6 party responsible with 15 9 1 party agreed with Possessor the complement identifies the possessor of something having owning holding or wearing pon 6 1e possession of being carried by about 5 3a owner of attribute o 6 3 genitive possession o 11 6 possessor is subject of verb like governor of 6 3 genitive possession of 11 6 possessor is subject of verb like governor on 6 1e possession of being carried by upon 6 1e possession of being carried by Attribute the complement identifies an attribute of the governor the involved party in 1 1 1 clothing worn in 9 7 1 attribute of clothing worn o 6 3 1 quality or characteristic of 6 3 1 quality or characteristic with 3 2a wearing or carrying with 10 7a malady Selection Criteria References Quirk R Greenbaum S Leech G and Svartik J 1985 A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language Longman New York pp 700 1 Comments to Ken Litkowski Modified August 22 2015 15 18 06 PDEP Agent Class 58 senses Preposition Sense Srtype Supersense Classed Count Pct NF pon 11 5 1 Experiencer Beneficiary Yes 0 100 0 0 19 pon 21 11 PartyPaying Yes 0 100 0 0 19 pon 6 1e Holder Possessor Yes 0 100 0 0 19 about 5 3a OwnerOfAttribute Possessor Yes 3 100 0 134 02 according to 1 1 Authority Yes 94 100 0 500 21 at the hand of 1 1 Agent Yes 7 100 0 1 30 at the hands of 1 1 Agent Yes 232 100 0 43 03 behind 7 4 DepartedParty Yes 6 100 0 27 63 beyond 8 4a PartyFlummoxed Yes 6 100 0 25 21 by 1 1 Agent Agent Yes 0 100 0 119 21 by 10 2e Parent Yes 0 100 0 119 21 by 2 1a Agent Agent Causer Stimulus Yes 256 100 0 30518 99 by 21 7 PartyAccepting Beneficiary Donor Speaker Yes 3 100 0 357 64 by 22 8 PartyInvoked Manner Yes 0 100 0 119 21 by 3 1b Agent Agent Yes 41 100 0 4887 81 by 4 1c Creator Creator Yes 43 100 0 5126 24 by 9 2d Parent Co Agent Yes 0 100 0 119 21 by

    Original URL path: http://www.clres.com/db/classes/ClassAgent.php (2016-02-11)
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  • MeansMedium Prepositions
    5 4 thing not available outta 5 4 thing not available sans 3 2 thing not used without 3 2 thing not used Medium the complement expresses the medium in which the governor appears or is accomplished pon 12 6 storage medium pon 13 6a broadcast medium according to 4 n authoritative document in 9 7 language or medium in 10 7a musical key on 12 6 storage medium on 13 6a broadcast medium onto 3 n storage medium o er 15 6 over 15 6 under cover of 3 n upon 12 6 storage medium upon 13 6a broadcast medium via 3 1b Agentive the complement expresses the agent through 13 5a intermediary thro 13 5a intermediary thru 13 5a intermediary Negative the complement identifies an agent not used to achieve the result in place of 2 n agent replaced vice 1 1 agent replaced Stimulus the complement expresses a stimulus for a governor that expresses an emotion at 11 6 1 Selection Criteria References Quirk R Greenbaum S Leech G and Svartik J 1985 A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language Longman New York Comments to Ken Litkowski Modified August 22 2015 15 18 52 PDEP MeansMedium Class 94 senses Preposition Sense Srtype Supersense Classed Count Pct NF gainst 8 3 ThingContrasted Comparison Contrast Yes 0 100 0 0 19 gainst 9 3a ThingContrasted Yes 0 100 0 0 19 pon 12 6 MediumOfInformation Destination Locus Yes 0 100 0 0 19 pon 13 6a MediumOfBroadcast Via Yes 0 100 0 0 19 a la 1 1 Dish Yes 4 100 0 0 74 a la 2 1a Model Yes 33 100 0 6 12 according to 2 1a MediumOfInstruction Circumstance Yes 43 100 0 228 82 according to 4 n Medium Yes 47 100 0 250 11 after 10 5a TargetOfImitation Comparison Contrast Yes 1 100 0 31 43 after 9 5 TargetOfAllusion Comparison Contrast Yes 1 100 0 31 43 after the fashion of 1 1 Model Yes 6 100 0 1 11 against 8 3 ThingContrasted Comparison Contrast Yes 17 100 0 364 40 against 9 3a ThingContrasted Yes 1 100 0 21 44 agin 8 3 ThingContrasted Comparison Contrast Yes 0 100 0 0 19 agin 9 3a ThingContrasted Yes 0 100 0 0 19 along 4 n Harmonizer Yes 26 100 0 134 05 as 4 n ThingContrasted Yes 2 100 0 243 27 at 11 6 Means Instrument Yes 2 100 0 154 43 at 11 6 1 Stimulus Stimulus Yes 7 100 0 540 50 by 11 2f Backdrop Manner Yes 11 100 0 1311 36 by 14 3b Frequency Frequency Yes 3 100 0 357 64 by 23 n Manner Yes 0 100 0 119 21 by 5 2 MeansToEnd Means Yes 67 100 0 7987 39 by 6 2a Referent Function Yes 2 100 0 238 43 by 8 2c Transport Course Transit Yes 2 100 0 238 43 by dint of 1 1 Means Yes 38 100 0

    Original URL path: http://www.clres.com/db/classes/ClassMeansMedium.php (2016-02-11)
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  • Membership Prepositions
    under 12 4d a heading title or grouping upon 10 4 within 4 1c bounds set by a concept within 7 n group Species the complement identifies a member or a part of a whole as 3 n an instance serving as an example such as by 7 2b name used by the name of 1 1 name used by way of 2 2 in the form of complete with 1 1 additional part or feature counting 1 1 thing included frae 9 6 raw material from 9 6 raw material in the person of 1 1 individual named including 1 1 inclusive of 1 1 part of a whole like 7 3 such as o 3 1b 1 contents o 9 5 species o 17 8 constituents of 3 1b 1 contents of 9 5 species of 17 8 constituents of the name of 1 1 name used with 2 2 having or possessing as a part with 5 3a substance used Selection Criteria The membership relation is generally between two noun phrases Mostly the complement will be directly attached to another noun phrase but occcasionally the governor will be a copula or a verb that implies a noun like group In some cases the genus species relationship may be encoded in the WordNet hypernym hyponym relations In many cases the species may be identified by a partitive noun In many cases the group may be identified by a collective noun References Quirk R Greenbaum S Leech G and Svartik J 1985 A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language Longman New York Comments to Ken Litkowski Modified August 22 2015 15 19 46 PDEP Membership Class 49 senses Preposition Sense Srtype Supersense Classed Count Pct NF mongst 2 2 Group Yes 0 100 0 0 19 pon 10 4 Group ProfessionalAspect Yes 0 100 0 0 19 across 3 n ApplicableRange Yes 55 100 0 297 62 among 2 2 Group Superset Yes 95 100 0 1115 18 as 1 1 FunctionFulfilled Attribute Yes 145 100 0 17636 88 as 3 n Member Yes 47 100 0 5716 78 by 7 2b NameUsed Yes 2 100 0 238 43 by the name of 1 1 NameUsed Yes 68 100 0 12 61 by way of 2 2 FunctionFulfilled Yes 91 100 0 50 37 complete with 1 1 Part Yes 242 100 0 76 31 counting 1 1 ThingIncluded Yes 0 100 0 0 19 frae 9 6 Substance Material Yes 0 100 0 0 19 from 9 6 Substance Material Yes 4 100 0 333 96 in 12 9 Whole Superset Value Yes 2 100 0 741 97 in 7 5 Group Activity Locus Superset Yes 111 100 0 41179 42 in common with 2 n ThingSimilar Yes 170 100 0 58 02 in the person of 1 1 IndividualNamed Yes 63 100 0 11 69 in token of 1 1 ThingRepresented Yes 6 100 0 1 11 including 1 1 Member Yes 246 100 0 2657 20

    Original URL path: http://www.clres.com/db/classes/ClassMembership.php (2016-02-11)
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  • Exception Prepositions
    except apart from 1 1 aside from 1 1 bar 1 1 bar 2 1a horse s when stating odds barring 1 1 but 1 1 but for 1 1 but for 2 1a if complement not taken into account dehors 1 1 not including ex 3 2 not including except 1 1 except for 1 1 excepting 1 1 excluding 1 1 exclusive of 1 1 give or take 2 1a apart from other than 1 1 outside 4 2 beyond scope of outside of 2 1a outside of 3 n beyond scope of outwith 4 2 beyond scope of save 1 1 save 2 n with following for saving 1 1 than 2 2 usually with rather with the exception of 1 1 Exclusion the complement is a factor that is not taken into account though it might seem relevant or is insufficient beyond 9 5 usually with negative irrespective of 1 1 thing disregarded regardless of 1 1 thing disregarded Selection Criteria References Quirk R Greenbaum S Leech G and Svartik J 1985 A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language Longman New York pp 707 9 Comments to Ken Litkowski Modified August 22 2015 15 20 33 PDEP Exception Class 30 senses Preposition Sense Srtype Supersense Classed Count Pct NF cept 1 1 Exception Yes 1 100 0 0 19 apart from 1 1 Exception Elements Yes 113 100 0 161 98 aside from 1 1 Exception Elements Yes 57 100 0 10 57 bar 1 1 Exception Yes 11 100 0 2 04 bar 2 1a HorsesExcepted Yes 0 100 0 0 19 barring 1 1 Exception Yes 10 100 0 1 85 beyond 9 5 Exception Elements Yes 28 100 0 117 63 but 1 1 Exception Elements Yes 183 100 0 148 27 but

    Original URL path: http://www.clres.com/db/classes/ClassException.php (2016-02-11)
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  • Scalar Prepositions
    amount added plus 3 2 degrees to 12 4c exponent requiring an ordinal Selection Criteria For the most part scalar prepositions are recognized based only on the properties of the complement Selectors for the complement look at the complement itself hr or c Many of these can be recognised with the WordNet lexical name ln noun quantity Others can be recognized by using the part of speech pos cd i e recognizing cardinal numbers Since scalar expressions can usually be found with almost any kind of governor developing criteria for the governor is less successful References Quirk R Greenbaum S Leech G and Svartik J 1985 A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language Longman New York pp 685 7 Comments to Ken Litkowski Modified August 22 2015 15 21 22 PDEP Scalar Class 127 senses Preposition Sense Srtype Supersense Classed Count Pct NF pon 22 12 ThingAddedTo Yes 0 100 0 0 19 pon 9 3a 1 ValueBasis Yes 0 100 0 0 19 a cut above 1 1 ThingOutranked Yes 14 100 0 2 60 above 10 n NormSurpassed Yes 57 100 0 262 21 above 5 2a ThingOutranked Scalar Rank Yes 7 100 0 32 20 above 6 2b EntitySubordinate Scalar Rank Yes 12 100 0 55 20 above 7 2c ThingNotPreferred Scalar Rank Yes 2 100 0 9 20 above 8 2d DrownedSound Scalar Rank Yes 6 100 0 27 60 above 9 3 Norm Scalar Rank ValueComparison Yes 75 100 0 345 02 according to 3 1b ScaleOfReference Circumstance Yes 66 100 0 351 21 afore 4 3 ThingOutranked Scalar Rank Yes 0 100 0 0 19 after 8 4 ThingPreferred Scalar Rank Yes 0 100 0 31 43 ahead of 4 n Norm Yes 103 100 0 74 74 at 5 3 Level Frequency Value Yes 82 100 0 6331 52 at 6 3a Age Age Yes 9 100 0 694 92 at a range of 1 1 Distance Yes 7 100 0 1 30 atop 2 n NormSurpassed Yes 4 100 0 0 74 before 4 3 ThingOutranked Scalar Rank Yes 1 100 0 15 45 behind 8 5 NormSuperior Scalar Rank Yes 5 100 0 23 03 behind 9 6 CompetitorAhead Scalar Rank Yes 4 100 0 18 42 below 2 1a NormSuperior Scalar Rank Yes 9 100 0 17 67 below 3 1b QuantityAbove Scalar Rank ValueComparison Yes 147 100 0 288 60 beneath 4 2a NormSuperior Scalar Rank Yes 9 100 0 8 53 beneath 5 2b PartyWorthier Scalar Rank Yes 3 100 0 2 84 beside 2 1a Comparator Comparison Contrast Yes 13 100 0 8 99 between 3 3 ScaleEnds Approximator Yes 19 100 0 829 85 between 6 4b PairContrasting Comparison Contrast Yes 18 100 0 786 17 between 7 4c Comparators Yes 26 100 0 1135 58 betwixt 3 3 ScaleEnds Approximator Yes 1 100 0 0 19 betwixt 6 4b PairContrasting Comparison Contrast Yes 0 100 0 0 19 betwixt 7 4c Comparators Yes 0 100

    Original URL path: http://www.clres.com/db/classes/ClassScalar.php (2016-02-11)
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