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  • Cybergenetics :: US5580728
    to no more than two allele sizes 10 A method as described in claim 1 wherein the amplification step is polymerase chain reaction using two oligonucleotide primers sufficiently complementary to non repeated sequences that flank the multinucleotide repeat location 11 A method as described in claim 1 wherein the amplified material is labeled 12 A method as described in claim 1 wherein the oligonucleotide primers are obtained by direct synthesis 13 A method as described in claim 1 wherein the oligonucleotide primers are end labeled 14 A method as described in claim 1 wherein more than one multinucleotide repeat location on a genome is characterized simultaneously 15 A method as described in claim 1 used to establish the identity pedigree or biological relationship of an individual comprising comparison of the individual s genotype with the genotype of one or more distinct individuals 16 A method as described in claim 1 wherein the sensing device includes the step of separating DNA molecules of distinct sizes and determining a DNA concentration related to a size 17 A method as described in claim 1 wherein the DNA or RNA material is genomic DNA or cloned DNA 18 A system for genotyping comprising a means for obtaining DNA or RNA material from a genome b means for amplifying a location of the material with the length of the location not exceeding fifty kilobases and the location containing a multinucleotide repeat region said amplifying means in communication with the DNA or RNA material c means for labelling the amplified material with labels said labelling means in communication with amplified material d means for converting the labels with a sensing device which produces a first electrical signal said converting means in communication with the labelling means e means for removing a reproducible pattern of the amplification from the first electrical signal using a program residing in the memory of a computer to form a third electrical signal said removing means in communication with the first electrical signal and f means for producing from the third electrical signal a genotype of the material at the location said producing means in communication with the removing means 19 A system as described in claim 18 wherein a the amplifying means includes polymerase chain reaction b the converting means includes gel electrophoresis or mass spectroscopy or denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis or differential hybridization or sequencing by hybridization c the labelling means employs labels and related sensors that include radioactivity or fluorescence or phosphorescence or chemiluminescence or visible light or ions or pH or electricity or resistivity or biotinylation or antibodies and includes the detecting means which includes a photomultiplier tube a radioactivity counter a resistivity sensor a pH meter or an optical detector and d the removing means includes statistical moment determinations or Fourier transformation or optimal filtering or polynomial calculations or matrix computations 20 A method for analyzing genetic material of an organism comprising the steps of a obtaining DNA or RNA material from the organism b amplifying a

    Original URL path: http://www.cybgen.com/information/patent2.shtml (2016-02-12)
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  • Cybergenetics :: US5541067
    A method as described in claim 1 wherein the step of removing the reproducible pattern from the first electrical signal includes the step of a deconvolution procedure 4 A method as described in claim 1 wherein the step of removing the reproducible pattern from the first electrical signal includes the step of deconvolving with a second electrical signal related to the reproducible pattern of the amplification 5 A method as described in claim 1 wherein the step of removing the reproducible pattern includes the step of deconvolving with matrix processing of the electrical signals 6 A method as described in claim 1 wherein the determination of the second set of electrical signals of the location is comprised of the steps a obtaining DNA or RNA material from a genome b amplifying locations of the material with the length of the location not exceeding fifty kilobases and the location containing a polynucleotide repeat region c labelling the amplified material with labels d converting the labels with a sensing device which produces a first electrical signal and e operating on the first set of electrical signals produced from the amplified material to produce a second set of electrical signals corresponding to reproducible patterns of the locations 7 A method as described in claim 1 wherein the obtaining step pools DNA or RNA from one or more individuals 8 A method as described in claim 1 wherein the amplifying step includes more than one polynucleotide repeat location 9 A method as described in claim 1 wherein the amplifying step includes more than one polynucleotide repeat location and the size properties of these locations may overlap 10 A method as described in claim 1 wherein the amplifying step includes more than one polynucleotide repeat location the size properties of these locations may overlap and the reproducible patterns of the different locations include bands of the same size 11 A method as described in claim 1 wherein the amplifying step includes more than one polynucleotide repeat location the size properties of these locations may overlap the reproducible patterns of the different locations include bands of the same size and the reproducible patterns of the different locations are used in genotyping the locations 12 A method as described in claim 1 wherein the removing step combines the first electrical signal with a second set of electrical signals corresponding to reproducible patterns of the locations 13 A system for genotyping comprising a means for obtaining nucleic acid material from a genome b means for amplifying locations of the material said amplifying means in communication with the nucleic acid material c means for assaying the amplified material based on size and concentration said assaying means in communication with amplifying means d means for converting the assayed amplified material into a first set of electrical signals corresponding to size and concentration of the amplified material at the locations said converting means in communication with the assaying means and e means for removing a reproducible pattern of amplification from the

    Original URL path: http://www.cybgen.com/information/patent1.shtml (2016-02-12)
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  • Cybergenetics :: Mix & match: Getting comfortable with DNA reporting
    live audio of Dr Perlin s talk Download Handout Download PowerPoint Abstract Juries regularly hear DNA testimony about TrueAllele match statistics on complex DNA evidence This talk shows how to explain TrueAllele in court using demonstrative aids and a case report The aids introduce DNA mixtures and their STR data describe how the computer separates mixture data into genotypes and show how comparing genotypes calculates a match statistic The running case example is People of New York v Casey Wilson a serial rape trial from September 2014 in Elmira NY In that case TrueAllele separated a DNA mixture from a purple glove into three components providing match information By connecting the victim elimination and defendant all to one item the glove mixture supported the prosecutor s theory of the case Announcement Duquesne University will be offering a Forensic Friday CLE and professional education seminar on Friday October 16th 2015 from 1 00 4 30 p m in Pittsburgh PA on What s in a Match How to Read a Forensic DNA Report Although long known as the gold standard of forensic identification DNA analysis is actually far more complicated than it seems When experts speak of finding a match what

    Original URL path: http://www.cybgen.com/information/presentations/2015/DUCLE/Perlin-Mix-and-match-getting-comfortable-with-DNA-reporting/page.shtml (2016-02-12)
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  • Cybergenetics :: Forensic Science and Criminal Law: Cutting Edge DNA Strategies
    Releases Trials Contact Directions Information Visiting Support FAQ File Transfer Sending Data Downloads Back to Presentations Forensic Science and Criminal Law Cutting Edge DNA Strategies M W Perlin Forensic Science and Criminal Law Cutting Edge DNA Strategies Pennsylvania Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers Pittsburgh PA 25 Sep 2015 Talk PowerPoint presentation with live audio recording of Dr Perlin s talk Download Handout Download PowerPoint Question and Answer session Download Handout

    Original URL path: http://www.cybgen.com/information/presentations/2015/PACDL/Perlin-Forensic-science-and-criminal-law-cutting-edge-DNA-strategies/page.shtml (2016-02-12)
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  • Cybergenetics :: Objective DNA Mixture Information in the Courtroom: Relevance, Reliability and Acceptance
    they have become the predominant form of DNA evidence in many crime laboratories While DNA from one person is easy to interpret mixture data has complex patterns comprising many allele peaks of varying height One person s DNA produces either one allele peak or two of similar height so a height threshold is meaningful But data simplifying thresholds fail to give accurate results when applied to complex mixture patterns Ten years ago NIST demonstrated a ten order of magnitude match statistic discrepancy between crime laboratories analyzing the same mixture data Mixture inclusion analysis tests whether a subject s alleles are included in a set of thresholded peak alleles but is inherently subjective the analyst sees the subject s genotype during the analysis An entirely objective and potentially more informative approach is to first separate out the genotypes of each mixture contributor without ever seeing the subject and only afterwards make a comparison This can be accomplished by sophisticated computing that considers many thousands of genotype alternatives and how well their linear combinations explain the quantitative data Multiple possibilities for a contributor genotype are assigned probabilities Faithful modeling of the laboratory process can yield genotypes that accurately preserve DNA identification information Comparison of a separated evidence genotype with a subject s reference genotype relative to a population gives a match statistic This statistic is a simple ratio the probability of genotype match divided by the random match probability It is also a likelihood ratio LR or Bayes factor BF a standard measure of information change based on observed evidence The LR is mathematically probative because it assesses how evidence data affects a hypothesis i e whether the subject contributed their DNA to the mixture And the LR s assessment is nonprejudicial because as a BF the ratio factors out prior belief

    Original URL path: http://www.cybgen.com/information/presentations/2015/ISFSEM/Perlin-Objective-DNA-mixture-information-in-the-courtroom/page.shtml (2016-02-12)
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  • Cybergenetics :: Rapid DNA Response: On the Wings of TrueAllele
    M W Perlin Rapid DNA Response On the Wings of TrueAllele Mid Atlantic Association of Forensic Scientists Annual Meeting Cambridge MD 20 May 2015 Talk PowerPoint presentation with audio recording of Dr Perlin s narration Download Handout Download PowerPoint Abstract In a recent homicide of family members a crime laboratory requested TrueAllele 174 assistance from Cybergenetics to keep critical DNA in evidence The clothing DNA mixture items each contained 3

    Original URL path: http://www.cybgen.com/information/presentations/2015/MAAFS/Bowkley-Rapid-DNA-Response/page.shtml (2016-02-12)
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  • Cybergenetics :: Challenging DNA Evidence
    27 Feb 2015 When Friday February 27 2015 12 30pm to 2 30pm Where Courtroom 313 Allegheny County Courthouse Download Announcement Abstract Modern DNA evidence has become more challenging Mixtures of multiple people often with low amounts of DNA are more prevalent The resulting DNA data pose interpretation challenges that sophisticated computing can solve but simpler analysis cannot These scientific challenges translate into new ways of presenting challenging and defending

    Original URL path: http://www.cybgen.com/information/presentations/2015/ACC/Perlin-Challenging-DNA-evidence/page.shtml (2016-02-12)
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  • Cybergenetics :: Separating familial mixtures, one genotype at a time
    mixtures that contain multiple family members Genotype separation overcomes high allele sharing and produces simple likelihood ratios LR One recent father daughter rape case had multiple cuttings from a blanket with evidence items that were two person mixtures TrueAllele first assumed that two unknown people contributed their DNA to the evidence and inferred genotypes matching the father and daughter with statistics in the tens of trillions Next assuming the father

    Original URL path: http://www.cybgen.com/information/presentations/2014/NEAFS/Bowkley-Separating-familial-mixtures-one-genotype-at-a-time/page.shtml (2016-02-12)
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