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  • What does resilience really mean ? - Transversaux
    in 2008 the British Ministry of Defence published a joint forces document Operation in the UK The Defence Contribution to Resilience JDP 02 which seeks to prepare the armed forces for the best possible cooperation with civilian authorities In contrast to this resilience in the United States is perceived as a capacity to anticipate risks and to limit their impact in order to return to the previous state In its application this series of measures carries with it considerable infringement of individual liberty In short the term resilience has invaded numerous fields of activity including the worlds of research and communications Even mattress manufacturers use the word to describe the ability of their products to recover their original shape after being compressed For all that does the term actually bring anything new to our approach to problems be they individual societal or geopolitical The concept of resilience We should note at the outset that the notion of resilience is vague has many meanings and is in any case largely metaphorical It is used in widely differing fields with widely differing definitions with often only the remotest of relationships between them It appears in pure sciences like physics life sciences like biology and ecology human sciences such as psychology sociology and medicine and also in economics IT aeronautics and even the fields of politics strategic thinking and crisis management Is it possible then to give any form to the concept of resilience given this multitude of fields of application and definitions Above all the most obvious common factor is the link with some crisis or trauma whether personal or collective and whether it affects a single person a group or an entire nation We should remind ourselves of what constitutes a crisis it is a major breakdown that completely overturns a previous set of assumptions and ways of going about business bringing with it new and often unidentified dangers chaos and uncertainty It has major and lasting consequences that call into question the stability of the organisation suffering the crisis thus necessitating rapid decision making This means then that routine disturbances failures and incidents do not invoke resilience since they are controlled by the processes already mentioned Resilience only becomes apposite when there is trauma that is when the functions of normal daily life are lost and the trauma is sufficiently serious to lead to breakdown in points of reference and the normal processes of recovery from difficult situations Resilience is this ability to carry on despite the trauma suffered yet is inseparable from the trauma itself This would seem to imply that anything dealing with crisis prevention or planning for crisis management does not really involve the notion of resilience In such a context we would be talking of crisis management as the term is usually understood Resilience only enters the equation once a crisis has occurred and is sufficiently serious to lead to a level of disruption that the usual crisis management processes cannot handle But at exactly what point can we say that the concept of resilience comes into play In practical terms it can only happen once breakdown is recognised and the crisis has to be seen from another point of view leading to the establishment of different management mechanisms and an organisation adapted to the situation In short a new vision is needed at this point in order to provide a response that is disconnected from the trauma itself allowing life to carry on regardless Others would suggest that resilience is a capacity to restructure to prevent the crisis from having any effect for example continuing operations despite a breakdown shock or crisis or even the capacity to find a means to reconstruct From this it would seem that resilience develops in two stages The first is short term and immediate during the crisis when confronted by the traumatic experience and is characterised by the establishment of protection and defence mechanisms that resist the disorganisation caused by the invasion of reality Then comes a longer term post crisis stage of resilience in which the traumatic shock is acknowledged and overcome through a process of reconstruction and repair in order to give some meaning to the injury suffered This is also why resilience can manifest itself in two ways either a return to the original state which allows a new start in the same context as before without difficulty or the establishment of a different though stable state without the change in state itself leading to further trauma One might reasonably conclude that a return to the original state relates to short term resilience whereas creating a new state of stability necessarily requires a mechanism for long term resilience Another important point is that the resilience of all people and all organisations when faced with similar sets of circumstances is not the same Distinction has therefore to be made between on the one hand the circumstances of a shock and on the other the person or organisation that has suffered under them Neither past events nor the circumstances of the catastrophe should be of interest to those investigating resilience but just the manner in which the individual or the organisation commits itself to its existence beyond the trauma of the event Boris Cyrulnik explains that resilience also means being able to extricate oneself from the past and not becoming a prisoner of it Resilience he says has nothing to do with what some would claim as a form of invulnerability or superior quality but with the ability to recover a human life despite the injury suffered yet without becoming obsessed with that injury This is very much the ability to bounce back as in the origin of the term resilience One could deduce from this that resilience is a dynamic phenomenon and not simply resistance to shock It is a sort of moral spring a quality possessed by something or someone who does not give in and who can overcome trouble without any obvious problems Psychologists tell us that resilience depends on the mental image an individual has of the event for example a trivial event for Mr A could prove catastrophic for Mrs B simply because she does not perceive it in the same way The resilience of a nation We should now look more closely at the resilience of a nation in the face of a major crisis that could affect the future of the country Following the logic discussed above there are two options open to us organising in advance in order to face a major crisis and come out of it successfully or when faced with defeat reconstruction and recovery of normal life without major problems Deciding which to choose is far from simple As a general rule the phenomenon of resilience begins to develop before the crisis is over and indeed it is this nascent resilience that often provides a way out of the crisis At the same time however all the arrangements put in place before a crisis strikes only relate to careful preparation and good crisis management One of the best known examples of resilience in France followed the defeat of 1940 Resilience was exemplified in General de Gaulle the Free French Forces and the Resistance and the spirit of resilience was emphasised in de Gaulle s famous speech of 18 June 1940 Yet at the same time the majority of French people and the French government did not show themselves to be resilient True resilience began at the point when some believed that the crisis had been resolved by an abandonment of sovereignty yet others considered that a new more complex and more difficult battle was beginning one that would lead to a real victory that would permit France to recover its place and role in the world But let us look at how the Anglo Saxons see resilience The British vision of it leans more towards anticipation of a crisis than of crisis and post crisis management It is founded on protection of civil liberties a strong will not to disrupt British citizens way of life and seeks social cohesion between communities For the British resilience depends largely on minimising the chance of being caught by surprise a concept that is supported by six main principles Anticipation thorough preparation for crisis so that management of it can ensure that the nation continues to function and the people remain calm Planning planning means setting in place the necessary measures and standard though flexible responses to a given crisis It also means having access to logistics centres at less than 24 hours notice for example to have access to medical and NBC equipment and supplies Communication studies into recent major ecological natural and terrorist catastrophes for example Hurricane Katrina and the attacks in London in 2005 and Madrid in 2004 have revealed that a badly informed population or one that has been subject to disinformation turns more readily to pessimism and suspicion thereby losing confidence in state institutions and other organisations 4 The various national authorities have therefore created information sites on the Internet that allow anyone to have access to documentation and advice in case of crisis 5 Emphasis is also put on ease of access to information and to the state of alert Simulation full scale exercises or case studies for example Exercise Aurora organised by the Department of Health for management of a long term pandemic allow near real simulation of a given crisis and involve everyone including businesses and the general population The Cabinet Office is driving the development of resilience in the United Kingdom and regularly publishes exercise outlines for use by the public and companies Cooperation and coordination at all levels local regional and national resilience is unimaginable without strong interdependence between governmental authorities and the various local regional and national players Factors involved in preparation under the NSS include working to reinforce resilience at national regional and local levels with the government Police and emergency services operating together with the private sector and local authorities to ensure that communities are ready for a terrorist attack and are capable of limiting its consequences and returning to normal life as quickly as possible 6 Exercise Triton a simulation of wide scale flooding held in June and July 2004 emphasised this aspect 60 agencies worked together and 35 teams were deployed in the field to test the coordination and cooperation between the many players Reactivity as a general rule the population wants everything and it wants it immediately and a government s credibility depends on the speed of reaction of the players involved An example of this is the creation in August 2005 of Hazardous Area Response Teams capable of going into action at very short notice 7 All that said and as Joseph Henrotin has underlined one has to understand that resilience is like terrorism in the sense that it is virtual the strength of each lies in its supposed power and cannot be verified until an attack occurs and in its aftermath 8 Indeed so as currently laid out the principles of the NSS rely solely on predictions and possibilities which do not permit any real evaluation of British resilience merely consideration of the possible reactions The Americans have also developed a concept of resilience although the preferred term in the United States is Homeland Defense with particular emphasis placed on the terrorist risk as distinct from the British concept of defining a policy for security and management of crises whatever their nature Furthermore US resilience has been designed as a series of preventive measures against future terrorist attacks measures that infringe individual liberties to a considerable degree A new legal framework for this fight against terrorism was created resulting in the Patriot Act from October 2001 to 2005 which incorporated increased powers for fighting terrorism and for acquisition of intelligence Bill Clinton s 1996 law the Antiterrorism Law and Effective Death Penalty Act was also broadly strengthened The Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 was beefed up allowing suspects to be placed under surveillance or intelligence to be gathered from the workplace at home or from family and relations on a simple request from the FBI The FBI s intelligence gathering assets were also extended Competence of the courts was modified to allow the indefinite detention of foreign citizens even if no charge has been brought against them This new legal framework greatly eases the task of the new Homeland Security Department with its 22 sections and 17 000 staff that was created in 2002 The creation of this department and the reductions in civil liberties did not lead to mass opposition Far from it 356 of the 435 Representatives and 98 of the 100 Senators voted for it The FEMA Federal Emergency Management Agency was created in May 2003 with a mission to determine a national response to include plans for responding to citizens problems and facing up to all types of crisis in the new environment It should be remembered that for the Americans resilience is based on three key areas The first is planning for good crisis management which will lead to the birth of a resilient society the beginnings of this were seen in the aftermath of the attacks of 11 September 2001 and later developed following Hurricane Katrina in 2005 Next is a security policy based on thorough background checks on communities and citizens and a reduction in civil liberties as was started very rapidly after the 9 11 attacks The third area concerns the Revolution in Military Affairs aimed at improving the effectiveness of the armed forces and better coordination between allied systems France defines resilience as the will and ability of a country society in general and public authorities to stand up to the consequences of major aggression or catastrophe then to rapidly re establish their normal functions under conditions that are at the very least socially acceptable The 2008 White Paper on defence and national security adds that this definition presupposes the existence of organised public authorities and that organised cooperation exists between national that is centralised and local authorities and between the State and private sectors The reality is that up to now little has been put in place in real terms despite the many papers that have been published on crisis management and planning The Interior Ministry s Directorate of Civil Security has developed structures to deal with emergency situations such as the COGIC 9 and reorganisation of departments of state is allowing better coordination of action against terrorism and yet other than the words in the White Paper none of those papers has developed the concept of resilience as it affects the nation as a whole All of this highlights the difficulty for the French to take a firm grasp of what is a conceptual problem to give it some logical definition to analyse it in the context of its different applications and to put it into practice Therein lies the weakness of our strategic thinking we are looking for a number of Anglo Saxon ideas that we could adopt instead of asking our own specialists to think about the issue It is not the aim of this article to offer any solution to the problem it is too soon for that but it can nevertheless put forward a few principles in order to orientate our thought processes Key points for a French concept of resilience From the thoughts and ideas discussed above we have a number of criteria which allow us to set some bounds on the notion of resilience The first concerns our understanding of the concept itself A basic question has to be answered here is resilience the capacity for resistance and regeneration of technical and social structures in the face of crisis as envisaged by the Anglo Saxons or is it a capacity to recover after a crisis not to manage that crisis note by facilitating the changes necessary for reconstruction without further trauma As we have seen the answer is not as simple as it might appear And yet it seems that the first option that taken up principally by the British is a new way of viewing crisis management by involving more people and broadening the traditional fields of activity in the management of crises It might be judged a good overall approach to crises within which a number of ideas could be adapted to suit French crisis management There too this concept of an overall approach to crises needs to be built upon to create an organisational and doctrinal direction that will allow better management of crises whatever their nature As seen by France the concept of resilience leans more towards the second option which has been far less explored than the first It is true that it is more difficult to see how a national system that has been completely or partly annihilated could be regenerated and some would even question the need to investigate the issue It is of course only after the event that we become convinced of the need to think towards the future on that issue So we see that resilience involves the ability and will to recover some form of innovative dynamism despite the upset of a major traumatic crisis And it is precisely because the crisis is major and traumatic that resilience comes into play without it there is only a capability for reaction and adaptation to adversity which is part of the overall approach that we have been talking about The second point concerns learning how to reconfigure after some crisis that is unthinkable or hard to predict in all its aspects Such was the case after the defeat of 1940 with the reconfiguration envisaged by General de Gaulle in his speech of 18 June Very often this reconfiguration takes place outside the bounds of an established system administrative structure or standard thinking Novel solutions are needed as is a small group of people who have the

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  • founded Eurocrise Ses articles pour Diploweb com What does resilience really mean In 2001 General retd Loup Francart founded Eurocrise a company that conducts strategic research and studies for ministries private companies Direction Directeur P Verluise Conseil scientifique Charte du site Faire un don Devenir membre Auteurs Proposer un article Synergies Présenter le site Conférences Partenaires Participer Proposer une synergie Liens conseillés Archives Retrouvez la chaîne Diploweb sur Union européenne

    Original URL path: http://www.diploweb.com/_Loup-FRANCART_.html (2016-02-08)
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  • "Demain est un autre monde. Journal de route 1976-2006", par F. (...) - Transversaux
    quelques Etats relativement homogènes entre eux allaient pouvoir à partir de l économie former un ensemble touchant peu ou prou à tous les domaines y compris politique Mais à partir du moment où la CEE a commencé de s élargir que ce soit là ou non une simple coïncidence l élan n a pas duré comme s il s était agi d un simple sursaut Géopolitique du monde contemporain Le milieu du livre la fin des certitudes 1987 1997 dresse une géopolitique magistrale du monde contemporain empire américain chancelant puissances émergeantes et problématiques transversales évolutions démographiques guerres asymétriques et réchauffement climatique Passant en revue tous les acteurs qui comptent et qu il ausculte médicalement Francis Gutmann ne nous entraine pas dans le désenchantement d un monde aux portes de la fin de l histoire Au contraire en affirmant qu on ne bâtit pas une politique extérieure sur des nostalgies il nous engage à partir de l existence et de la reconnaissance des autres à faire un pari d intelligence Toute relation est un échange et l échange ne peut plus se limiter aux rapports interétatiques puisque nous sommes désormais dans un univers de flux aux multiples acteurs Il faut dialoguer distinguer toujours sans complexe ni complaisance On ne doit pas attendre de pouvoir négocier pour commencer de parler c est au contraire seulement en le faisant sans relâche que l on est assuré de pouvoir saisir l ouverture si elle vient à se produire En dernière instance aucune partition ne peut être valable toujours et partout Les équilibres partiels auxquels nous pouvons prétendre seront en outre précaires et successifs parce faits de forces changeantes en mouvements constants Ce seront des équilibres partiels comme les seules solidarités qui nous soient accessibles Au travail donc En marge d une érudition rhizomatique et tous terrains Francis Gutmann nous fait profiter de ses riches et longues expériences à travers une écriture alerte rationnelle et en définitive hyper politique Un beau cadeau pour les temps à venir Copyright 2009 Labévière Défense Biographie de Francis Gutmann Francis Gutmann ancien Secrétaire Général du Quai d Orsay élevé à la dignité d Ambassadeur de France a été également Directeur de Péchiney Président de Gaz de France dont il est Président d honneur Président de l Institut Français du Pétrole Il est actuellement Président du Conseil Scientifique de la Défense auprès du Ministre de la Défense 4 Né le 4 octobre 1930 marié trois enfants Francis Gutmann est diplômé de l Institut d Etudes Politiques et diplômé d études supérieures d économie politique de sciences économiques de droit romain et d ancien droit Il possède d autre part le Certificat d Aptitude à la profession d avocat Il a commencé sa carrière au Quai d Orsay en 1951 et il a notamment participé à différentes conférences internationales dans le cadre des Nations Unies 1952 1955 et à la Conférence de Bruxelles sur le Marché Commun 1956 1957 En 1955 1956 il a fait partie du Cabinet du Secrétaire d

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  • La collection Major (PUF). Au carrefour de toutes les (...) - Transversaux
    le terrain les territoires et la carte celle des militaires qui privilégient stratégie et rapport de forces celle des diplomates qui insistent sur les déterminismes liés à l espace celle des entreprises qui se privilégient les risques et les opportunités celle enfin des économistes qui parlent de géoéconomie un terme que nous reprenons à notre compte Nous partons d une définition unificatrice la géopolitique que nous pratiquons est l étude du rapport de forces dans l espace De toutes les forces politiques militaires économiques spirituelles Ce choix contribue à donner à nos ouvrages un caractère synthétique et complet La collection offre deux sortes d ouvrages de géopolitique Des manuels correspondant au programme des classes préparatoires bien adaptés aux besoins des étudiants Il s agit de livres très structurés entièrement rédigés donc sans abréviations et comprenant de nombreuses cartes en quatre ou deux couleurs comme il est normal pour cette discipline L intention est de présenter tous les éléments de connaissance dont les étudiants ont besoin afin de leur proposer des manuels complets ce qui suppose d être dense et d aller à l essentiel La mémorisation est facilitée par un plan très apparent et par des titres qui prennent en général la forme de phrase C est aussi un moyen de faire ressortir les idées principales et de donner des éléments de réflexion Autre avantage les chapitres prennent ainsi la forme d une dissertation comme il est exigé dans les examens et concours Le Monde manuel de géopolitique et de géoéconomie coordonné par Pascal Gauchon présente les forces qui façonnent le monde poussant à la fois à son unification et à sa fragmen tation Après un rappel historique il consacre une partie aux acteurs qualifiés de maîtres du monde les Etats nations les entreprises les religions et idéologies les organisations droit internationales les diasporas et mafias Une troisième partie analyse leurs moyens d action contraindre acheter et séduire une quatrième les enjeux pour lesquels ils rivalisent le contrôle des hommes des terres des océans des matières premières des technologies des lieux stratégiques Enfin la cinquième partie intitulée querelles de voisinage dans le vil lage mondial étudie la mondialisation ses limites ainsi que les grandes fractures du monde contemporain Il s agit du manuel le plus complet et le plus récent sur la géopolitique du monde actuel Le Nouveau Monde par P Gauchon et Y Gervaise et L Autre Monde par C Chancel E C Pielberg et C Telenne décrivent le premier le continent américain et le second l Asie orientale et méridionale Ils seront complétés par un Ancien Monde couvrant l Europe l Afrique et le Proche Orient La philosophie de ces ouvrages est la même que pour Le Monde Les rapports Anteios se concentrent chaque année sur un thème précis Depuis 2009 ce thème est aussi celui du Festival de Géopolitique et de Géoéconomie de Grenoble Ces ouvrages sont sensiblement plus courts que les précédents la présentation est adaptée aux attentes du grand public Ils permettent de faire rapidement

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  • Zone asiatique Afrique M O Afrique Moyen Orient Monde Livres géopolitiques Transversaux Compil Diploweb Audiovisuel Audio Photo Vidéo Accueil Pascal GAUCHON Biographie mise à jour en 2009 Elève à l Ecole Normale Supérieure reçu 1970 1974 Agrégé d histoire 1973 Enseignant dans le 93 collège Debussy à Aulnay sous bois puis collège Jorrissen à Drancy de 1976 à 1985 Enseignant en classe préparatoire économique et commerciale dans le privé à Ipésup depuis 1985 Directeur d un établissement d enseignement supérieur privé Prépasup depuis 1985 Directeur de la collection Major aux PUF depuis 1992 Ses articles pour Diploweb com La collection Major PUF Au carrefour de toutes les géopolitiques Edition et géopolitique Pour que la pensée géopolitique se développe il faut à la fois des auteurs des éditeurs livres revues journaux ou Direction Directeur P Verluise Conseil scientifique Charte du site Faire un don Devenir membre Auteurs Proposer un article Synergies Présenter le site Conférences Partenaires Participer Proposer une synergie Liens conseillés Archives Retrouvez la chaîne Diploweb sur Union européenne États membres Institutions Pays candidats Russie CEI Russie CEI Amérique Amérique du Nord Amérique centrale Amérique du Sud Asie Chine Inde Zone asiatique Afrique M O Afrique Moyen Orient Monde Livres

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  • La géopolitique chez Armand Colin - Transversaux
    déjà publiés ou paraître L année 2009 a été particulièrement riche en parutions avec notamment dans la collection Perspective Géopolitique la publication de La géopolitique du changement climatique de François Gemenne ou celle du sionisme par Frédéric Encel en attendant début 2010 les analyses capitales que nous livrera Bernard Hourcade dans une Géopolitique de l Iran L Atlas des crises et conflits proposé par Hubert Védrine et Pascal Boniface qui après avoir rappelé les causes fondamentales des crises et des conflits du monde se livrent au diagnostic du présent et scrutent l horizon pour nous présenter sur chacun des cas examinés les scénarios possibles La parution d un véritable manuel de géopolitique dans la collection U Aux éditions Sedes nous avons notamment publié deux ouvrages sur l Europe L un co écrit par Gérard François Dumont et Pierre Verluise Géopolitique de l Europe concerne directement les classes préparatoires commerciales car les entrepreneurs de demain ont besoin d une solide formation en la matière On retrouve d ailleurs la même tendance au niveau des IEP et l on doit s en féliciter Ce genre de manuels doit comporter de nombreuses cartes tableaux repères chronologiques et statistiques Il inclut aussi des propositions de sujets pour inviter les étudiants à se poser les bonnes questions et à anticiper les sujets possibles aux examens En la matière il faut réaliser une bonne alchimie entre la synthèse des connaissances et la dimension utilitaire recherchée et prisée par les étudiants Le second ouvrage dirigé par Michel Foucher place au centre de sa réflexion les traductions spatiales du système européen central façonné par la construction européenne Cet ouvrage L Europe Entre géopolitiques et géographies s adresse initialement aux étudiants préparant le capes ou l agrégation de géographie mais il devrait rapidement s imposer auprès d un plus vaste lectorat Le sous titre choisi Entre géopolitiques et géographies est particulièrement révélateur de la modernisation des approches à l Université On n est peut être plus trop loin de l introduction d une option géopolitique aux concours de recrutement d histoire géographie Ce serait une sacrée révolution Quels sont les projets de développement de votre maison d édition en matière géopolitique Les perspectives sont évidemment liées à l évolution du questionnement scientifique et aux besoins d approfondissement que tout un chacun peut ressentir Qui aurait pu imaginer par exemple la mise en œuvre et le succès d une géopolitique du changement climatique Le succès de l Atlas du monde mondial de Pascal Boniface et d Hubert Védrine a aussi montré l appétence du public pour les ouvrages qui dépassent les approches traditionnelles centrées sur la France ou l Occident La dernière partie de ce livre Le Monde vu par a trouvé un très bon écho auprès de notre lectorat La nouvelle édition de ce livre au printemps 2010 sera l occasion d approfondir cet effort avec l introduction de nouveaux chapitres sur le monde vu par l Espagne la Belgique l Indonésie le Sénégal Se dessine en creux une

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  • Ses articles pour Diploweb com La géopolitique chez Armand Colin Quel est le projet éditorial de la maison d édition Armand Colin en géopolitique Les éditions Armand Colin éditeur de référence en histoire et en Direction Directeur P Verluise Conseil scientifique Charte du site Faire un don Devenir membre Auteurs Proposer un article Synergies Présenter le site Conférences Partenaires Participer Proposer une synergie Liens conseillés Archives Retrouvez la chaîne Diploweb

    Original URL path: http://www.diploweb.com/_Stephane-BUREAU_.html (2016-02-08)
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  • Attentat manqué contre le vol Amsterdam–Detroit (Etats-Unis) - Transversaux
    Géopolitique du terrorisme Revue de presse vers des articles en français anglais allemand espagnol et italien L attentat manqué contre le vol Amsterdam Detroit du 25 décembre 2009 aurait été conçu au Yémen Le jeune Nigérian Umar Farouk Abdulmutallab qui a tenté d allumer une charge explosive dans le vol 253 de Northwest Airlines et qui était muni d un visa américain en cours de validité aurait admis avoir des liens avec Al Qaïda La tentative d attentat a entraîné un durcissement immédiat des mesures de sécurité dans les aéroports internationaux et attise le débat sur la politique de sécurité américaine Le président américain Barack Obama qui demande le réexamen des procédures de sécurité a estimé devant la presse sans citer d agence en particulier que les informations n avaient pas été correctement relayées En effet le père d Umar Farouk Abdulmutallab aurait ainsi averti les services de sécurité nigérians et américains du changement brutal de comportement de son fils Les Occidentaux tentent désormais d apporter leur aide au Yémen pays instable privé d Etat fort et en proie à une grande pauvreté devenu une base arrière d Al Qaïda Afin de ne pas produire de liens cassés les URL sont ôtés après 6 mois Nous vous remercions de votre compréhension Consultez l ensemble des revues de presse de l ISIT Voir Pourquoi et comment faire un don au Diploweb Mots clés Monde Yémen Etats Unis Terrorisme Al Qaïda Monde arabo musulman 2009 Revue de presse internationale ISIT Antiterrorisme Pays occidentaux Tentative d attentat Sécurité internationale Politique américaine Politique américaine Politique antiterroriste Politique de sécurité Sécurité aéroportuaire Services de renseignement Recommander cette page Votre adresse email Destinataire Texte de votre message Tweets de diploweb Direction Directeur P Verluise Conseil scientifique Charte du site Faire un don Devenir membre Auteurs Proposer

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