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  • Strength, power and energy : in search of a new order - Transversaux
    influence of the English language the world s lingua franca where even linguistic affinities create an intellectual emotional and behavioural complicity Apart from such cultural and linguistic complicities silent propaganda 4 has emerged to infuse opinion without contradiction This benefits the media and the image control of it sustains cohesion and influences minds The relativity of a critical sense gives to communications tools an influence that is undeniably a source of power Thus we see a cultural base used by transnational players and giving rise to a new form of power called soft power 5 In this domain France and indeed Europe at the supranational level with its prestigious past needs to increase efforts to develop its convergences of influence in order to stimulate cultural diversity and encourage creativity At the risk of reduction to a soulless entity or to a pile of old ruins it has to enlarge its perspectives and rely on the project of being the content rather than the container The conjunction of these determining criteria strength and influence could be seen as a guarantee of the creation of power Similarly the conjunction of the power of culture of business of individuals and of society in diverse association indissociable from the more traditional dimension of power incarnate would seem to lead inevitably to superpower The truth is more subtle and complex traditional criteria procure some freedom of action at best international realities would not be satisfied with such a simple theoretical accretion and demand the affirmation of something more substantial The quest for energy Faced with the multiple uncertainties of relative strength and influence relative to others described above it would seem that power derives its vigour and its essence more from a definition of its meaning for oneself Knowledge and standards Three of the traditional factors of power territorial size demographic weight wealth in raw materials are no longer such enviable trump cards and can sometimes paradoxically be a source of handicaps In this twenty first century new wealth derives more from human capital from research and the ability to innovate mere production of raw materials pales in comparison with the creation of grey matter Human resources are becoming the chief source of competitiveness and performance based on the triad of modernisation education and training As a result the quest for knowledge is pulled in two directions access to capital and access to know how notably English information technology and standards and bears witness to the power of the collective intelligence In this field know how is an element of the national conscience which should not stop France in its efforts to maintain its reputation as a place of scientific innovation Similarly while the right to interfere is set up in principle to penetrate sovereignties the law both an instrument rules an issue contradictory interpretation and an end in itself a timeless and universal Law is no longer just a body of rules regulating society and the relationships between states but has become a mirror in which others seek their reflection Thus the definition of standards accompanies and directs the forces for change to allow them to obtain the esteem of the great and the respect of the small 6 and in terms of power it has become more pertinent to impose one s will in determining the rules of a mandate than to restrict oneself unrewardingly to merely ensuring its implementation Memory and identity The question of maintaining the power of a common purpose and positive solidarity rests primarily on the cult of memory This return to a common past albeit sometimes reprehensible or nauseating is the first part of the rallying process the soothing memory is not to be found in yesterday s every deed and gesture but between testimony and oblivion it creates an eased reconciliation with the present Consolidation of the just memory 7 dedicated as a bow in the direction of the national crucible primes emotion this in turn leads to mutual understanding enlightening and motivation a convergence that constitutes the foundation of power In this respect France has a unique heritage but without looking only to the past it should use it as a launch pad for the future This heritage is a lever and must not be limited to navel gazing This memory must be given a soul to make it an attractive reality not just a motor power must be desired not simply accepted Without this affirmation of cohesion and solidarity no player has sufficient strength to take the example of the Battle of Valmy where the break with tradition an army of ragged wretches defeating a professional army is significant over this young army there floated something like an aura of heroism this aura was faith 8 Already in 1996 the defence White Paper p 28 proposed that power stems less from the extent of national territory than from the social organisation the education of the people their solidarity and the values that unite them Faced with suicidal zealots taking their blind fury to the limits the nation has to consolidate in the way envisaged by Ernest Renan Human confidence and motivation increase resources tenfold Indeed the State is feeble if it is not based on a sense of identity Only these intangible aspects of power will create meaning and federate energies to give them adamantine solidity By preferring fragmentation the modern epoch creates a selfish society It is good to show a taste for the audacious even a hunger for the utopian the wager of a harmonious society In a power system based on the traditional balance of forces if the power of one is indeed judged in the light of the power of others this relation to others is born essentially from the relation to oneself France as a nation offers the perfect example it is not composed simply of institutions of a body of law of organisations etc it is also and above all a civilisation resting on a community of values It

    Original URL path: http://www.diploweb.com/Strength-power-and-energy-in.html (2016-02-08)
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  • French MOD Ses articles pour Diploweb com Strength power and energy in search of a new order In international relations the criteria of power are customarily presented as a question of numbers mass surface area economy diplomatic Direction Directeur P Verluise Conseil scientifique Charte du site Faire un don Devenir membre Auteurs Proposer un article Synergies Présenter le site Conférences Partenaires Participer Proposer une synergie Liens conseillés Archives Retrouvez la

    Original URL path: http://www.diploweb.com/_Frederic-STERNENBERG_.html (2016-02-08)
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  • Le Dictionnaire de l'espace politique. Géopolitique et géographie (...) - Transversaux
    perceptions différentes selon les acteurs et à partir de là la description des stratégies qu ils y développent p 132 La suite de l article présente la géopolitique comme pratique la géopolitique comme méthode avec notamment une mention de l analyse multiscalaire la géopolitique comme représentation À la faveur de cet approfondissement les auteurs précisent que la géopolitique n entend pas découvrir et édicter des lois Pour eux quelle que soit l échelle d analyse la clef réside dans les rapports de pouvoir au plan interne ou de puissance au plan externe mobilisés selon des modalités tantôt inégalitaires ou arbitraires tantôt équitables ou démocratiques et résolus de façon conflictuelle ou consensuelle gouvernance p 134 Cet article comme les autres s achève par une bibliographie et des renvois à d autres articles connexes Quels usages Quels usages de ce Dictionnaire de l espace politique peuvent s envisager Il peut bien sûr se lire de plusieurs manières en voici deux La première consiste à en faire une lecture suivie de A borigène à Z ones urbaines sensibles Pour ce tour du monde des concepts géopolitiques il faut disposer d une bonne semaine de vacances Il en résulte une lecture très enrichissante parce qu elle ouvre bien des perspectives par un jeu dynamique entre découvertes redécouvertes et interactions avec ses centres d intérêts Ce qui ouvre toujours des pistes fécondes La deuxième façon de lire ce dictionnaire est opérationnelle au cours d une lecture ou d une recherche voire d un processus d écriture chacun peut vérifier en un tour de main le sens exact d un concept le situer dans son épaisseur historique et parfois découvrir des significations auxquelles il n avait pas initialement pensé Quels points forts Il est vrai que cet ouvrage n a pas d équivalent en langue française

    Original URL path: http://www.diploweb.com/Dictionnaire-de-l-espace-politique.html (2016-02-08)
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  • Seconde Guerre mondiale : le sens du 70 e anniversaire du début du (...) - Transversaux
    bien l alliance de deux totalitarismes nazi et communiste qui est à l origine du déclenchement de la Seconde Guerre mondiale En signant le pacte germano soviétique J Staline donne à Adolf Hitler les garanties dont il a besoin pour lancer ses troupes sur la Pologne puis mettre le monde à feu et à sang Le Secrétaire général du Parti communiste d Union soviétique escompte alors pouvoir tirer ensuite profit du chaos pour exporter la révolution La Gestapo et le NKVD 1 collaborent activement durant l hiver 1939 1940 Les points communs entre les deux systèmes totalitaires n empêchent évidemment pas des différences dans leurs comportements à l encontre des Polonais Les Allemands mettent en avant des critères raciaux et les Soviétiques des critères de classes Cependant les deux régimes se retrouvent pour chasser avec la dernière énergie le prêtre catholique et le résistant militaire ou civil J Staline met en œuvre l élimination systématique des élites polonaises Il fait assassiner notamment à Katyn plus de 25 000 officiers polonais En outre sa police politique déporte près de 1 7 million de Polonais au goulag Plus d un million y périssent 2 Ce n est pas Staline mais Hitler qui prend l initiative de la rupture Après avoir écrasé une large partie de l Europe Hitler retourne le 22 juin 1941 ses troupes contre l URSS avec l opération Barbarossa Si on en croit les inscriptions sur les monuments aux morts soviétiques c est pourtant seulement en juin 1941 que débute la Seconde Guerre mondiale pour l URSS Opération de prestidigitation qui passe à la trappe les responsabilités soviétiques durant vingt et un mois déterminants entre septembre 1939 et juin 1941 En partie parce que Staline a précédemment décapité son commandement militaire ses troupes perdent d abord pied Le soutien anglo saxon et le sacrifice de millions de soviétiques renversent progressivement la situation à partir de la victoire de Stalingrad en février 1943 Staline se met alors en position de force pour obtenir dès la conférence de Téhéran des assurances quant à l issue du conflit Bien qu adversaire l URSS s associe d une certaine manière une nouvelle fois à l Allemagne nazie lorsque Staline ordonne durant l été 1944 à ses troupes de stopper leur avancée vers Berlin pour laisser aux troupes allemandes tout le loisir d exterminer les résistants polonais lors de la bataille de Varsovie En 1945 l URSS est pourtant le pays qui reçoit le plus de territoires s étendant largement sur ses frontières occidentales notamment aux dépens des pays Baltes et de la Pologne En outre Moscou impose sa mainmise sur l Europe centrale et orientale pour plus de quatre décennies Dans une certaine mesure Staline a gagné son pari En effet non seulement l URSS n a pas été sanctionnée pour son alliance avec l Allemagne nazie mais elle a été la grande gagnante d un conflit qu elle a largement contribué à allumer Lever le tabou de la responsabilité du régime soviétique

    Original URL path: http://www.diploweb.com/Seconde-Guerre-mondiale-le-sens-du.html (2016-02-08)
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  • "Guide du maintien de la paix 2009", Jocelyn Coulon (dir) - Transversaux
    analyse l application du droit des conflits armés dans les opérations de stabilisation qui se situent à la frontière entre la logique militaire et la logique civile La complexité des opérations de paix Dans le premier texte Stéphane Pfister chercheur à l Institut européen de l Université de Genève analyse l impact de la FINUL II sur l environnement stratégique du Sud Liban depuis 2006 La résolution 1701 qui marque un tournant pour la FINUL aura transformé une force d interposition classique en force de stabilisation avec un renforcement conséquent de ses moyens Elle rend toutefois le mandat de la FINUL plus complexe la mission vise notamment à renforcer les capacités de l État libanais tout en interagissant avec les groupes armés du Sud Liban La FINUL se retrouve également plongée dans une région politiquement sensible ce qui demande des efforts diplomatiques constants afin d assurer son succès La FINUL est également le sujet du deuxième texte du guide où Fady Fadel de l Université Antonine et de l Université La Sagesse au Liban examine les responsabilités accrues de la mission onusienne depuis la résolution 1701 La nouvelle version de la FINUL dispose de plusieurs atouts afin de jouer son rôle renforcé dont un mandat précis l ajout d une composante navale et d une cellule militaire stratégique basée à New York Le chercheur passe en revue les règles d engagement complexes de la mission rappelant qu elle doit laisser l armée libanaise à l avant plan notamment face aux processus de désarmement ou la défense du territoire libanais Les compromis politiques inhérents aux opérations de paix Dans le troisième texte du guide Odile Perrot docteur en science politique recense la série de compromis politiques qui ont marqué l histoire du Kosovo notamment au sein de l ex Yougoslavie et les initiatives diplomatiques récentes face à son statut dont le plan Ahtisaari Même après la déclaration d indépendance le statut exact de l ancienne province serbe reste flou pour les organisations internationales actives sur le terrain La chercheure indique par la suite comment cette ambigüité a affecté la mission d administration onusienne au Kosovo dans le cadre d une autonomie supervisée par la communauté internationale la MINUK et l arrivée de la mission européenne l EULEX Rappelant que cette dernière devait originalement remplacer la MINUK l auteure estime que l avenir du Kosovo dépendra des marchandages entre grandes puissances Pour sa part David Ambrosetti chercheur au CNRS examine la situation au Darfour Abordant la création d une mission hybride ONU UA afin de se substituer à une mission de paix uniquement africaine il estime que le succès de la mission reste incertain étant donné l absence de paix sur le terrain et les répercussions de la justice internationale Selon lui l hybridité de la MINUAD à la suite d un compromis au Conseil de sécurité de l ONU bien qu étant une initiative innovatrice est politiquement fragile dans le contexte du Darfour La participation aux opérations de paix Jean Kenfack

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  • Diploweb com Guide du maintien de la paix 2009 Jocelyn Coulon dir Géopolitique de la guerre et de la paix Présentation du Guide du maintien de la paix 2009 Jocelyn Coulon dir Montréal Athéna Éditions 2008 Direction Directeur P Verluise Conseil scientifique Charte du site Faire un don Devenir membre Auteurs Proposer un article Synergies Présenter le site Conférences Partenaires Participer Proposer une synergie Liens conseillés Archives Retrouvez la chaîne

    Original URL path: http://www.diploweb.com/_Etienne-TREMBLAY-CHAMPAGNE_.html (2016-02-08)
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  • New trends in defence aerospace - Transversaux
    SkyMed In the interest of preparing the future and renewing optical and radar capabilities six European countries joined forces in 2008 2009 for Italy in a common European programme called MUSIS whose first satellite is due for launch in 2015 This programme will have an optical space element developed under French leadership a space radar component developed by the Germans an Italian radar module a wideband optical module developed by Spain and a jointly developed ground segment which controls each of the space components This programme is without doubt one of the most symbolic demonstrations of progress in European defence industrial cooperation For the first time the division of work is not just a production work sharing agreement but a real sharing of services This cooperation model is based on the acceptance of a balanced mutual dependence between several countries itself based on real confidence between each of the partners Communications The communications domain has to meet the challenge of minimising the transitions between the observation evaluation decision and action phases This challenge is rendered more complex by the fact that these phases involve an ever increasing number of systems ever increasing geographical coverage and significant increases in speed and transmission rates Bearing in mind the advantages which they offer when faced with these constraints space systems are naturally being used more and more in operational network architectures and in particular those which link home based operational deciders to forces deployed in operational theatres These days two different types of communication networks are needed The first are the robust and highly secure networks which underpin the control and use of our nuclear deterrent forces and guarantee the transmission of the information needed to ensure our autonomy of decision whatever the context of the crisis The second are networks which are less secure but whose needs in terms of speed are continually growing As far as secure communications are concerned France has developed the Syracuse system whose two third generation satellites IIIA and IIIB will meet the military requirement over the next ten years A further system has been forecast as becoming necessary in the 2012 timeframe in order to take account of the inevitability that satellite faults will become more frequent over time France has signed a cooperation agreement with Italy for the joint development of a satellite called SICRAL 2 which will carry both a French and an Italian payload Finally work has started to identify the possibilities of future cooperation for the post Syracuse III period By 2012 another Franco Italian joint programme ATHENA FIDUS will also allow us to field a less secure communications capability In order to optimise cost of ownership both countries are studying the possibility of exploiting part of the satellite payload for civil use for example as a communications means to support rural education projects Electromagnetic intelligence The third domain for which space technology has a strategic use is that of electromagnetic intelligence This gives us the ability to intercept locate and exploit both communications intelligence COMINT and radar signals ELINT Technical feasibility as far as communications are concerned implies the need for significant technological development to take into account the vast number of possible intercept targets the geographic cover required and the directional properties of the links to be intercepted Priority has therefore been given to the interception of electromagnetic signals This capability allows for the updating of the electromagnetic databases used to programme electronic warfare systems to detect and locate military systems in operational theatres To this end France has developed several technology demonstrators the most recent of which Essaim was launched in 2004 Its aim is to locate and identify radar transmitters and to create a database for a future operational system A new demonstrator is due to be operational in 2010 with the aim of exploring higher frequency bands All these studies are being carried out so as to have an operational system in 2016 France wants this to be a collaborative project As sensitive national data is involved the principle will be to share all the basic recorded data and for each partner country to exploit as it so wishes Several countries have already indicated their interest in collaborating under such an arrangement Early warning The final domain is that of early warning It seems likely that by the year 2025 both France and Europe will be within range of ballistic missiles developed by new military powers The ballistic missile threat also extends to troops deployed on operations overseas The White Paper has therefore logically designated anti missile defence as a priority Plainly the budget available makes obvious the impossibility of undertaking all the development which would be necessary A choice has therefore had to be made By opting for early warning France has taken a fundamental step forward that of being able to understand the reality and the nature of the ballistic threat and of potential attackers In the future a space system and radars will allow us to recognise the threat to determine the origin of the missile and to broadcast alerts The DGA France s armaments agency and the space industry have anticipated this decision by several years In February two micro satellites SPIRALE were successfully launched they represent the first scientific step towards what will be the operational space component open to European cooperation in about ten years time Finally the success of major efforts to be made in these four domains would be in vain were we not in a position to have autonomous access to space With Ariane V Europe has a particularly reliable launcher which is well suited to placing satellites into geostationary orbit Even so in this domain development cycles are very long Accordingly the prime minister launched a study at the beginning of 2009 to analyse the changes needed to prepare for the future This study s conclusions have recently been delivered they should allow the Government to make the choices that will eventually be shared with our European

    Original URL path: http://www.diploweb.com/New-trends-in-defence-aerospace.html (2016-02-08)
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  • armaments agency Ses articles pour Diploweb com New trends in defence aerospace 2009 a great year for aerospace The Paris Air Show will celebrate its centenary but we also celebrate the 40th anniversary of Concorde s Direction Directeur P Verluise Conseil scientifique Charte du site Faire un don Devenir membre Auteurs Proposer un article Synergies Présenter le site Conférences Partenaires Participer Proposer une synergie Liens conseillés Archives Retrouvez la chaîne

    Original URL path: http://www.diploweb.com/_Laurent-COLLET-BILLON_.html (2016-02-08)
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