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  • Ethnologue Products | Ethnologue
    118 pp Languages of Brunei 9 95 An Ethnologue Country Report 25 pp Languages of Bulgaria 9 95 An Ethnologue Country Report 21 pp Languages of Burkina Faso 14 95 An Ethnologue Country Report 54 pp Languages of Cambodia 9 95 An Ethnologue Country Report 28 pp Languages of Cameroon 19 95 An Ethnologue Country Report 169 pp Languages of Canada 14 95 An Ethnologue Country Report 73 pp Languages of Central African Republic 9 95 An Ethnologue Country Report 48 pp Languages of Chad 14 95 An Ethnologue Country Report 84 pp Languages of Chile 9 95 An Ethnologue Country Report 23 pp Languages of China 24 95 An Ethnologue Country Report 217 pp Languages of Colombia 14 95 An Ethnologue Country Report 66 pp Languages of Congo 9 95 An Ethnologue Country Report 44 pp Languages of Costa Rica 9 95 An Ethnologue Country Report 22 pp Languages of Côte d Ivoire 14 95 An Ethnologue Country Report 54 pp Languages of Croatia 9 95 An Ethnologue Country Report 20 pp Languages of Czech Republic 9 95 An Ethnologue Country Report 20 pp Languages of Democratic Republic of the Congo 19 95 An Ethnologue Country Report 112 pp Languages of Denmark 9 95 An Ethnologue Country Report 19 pp Languages of East Timor 9 95 An Ethnologue Country Report 25 pp Languages of Ecuador 9 95 An Ethnologue Country Report 30 pp Languages of Egypt 9 95 An Ethnologue Country Report 23 pp Languages of Equatorial Guinea 9 95 An Ethnologue Country Report 28 pp Languages of Eritrea 9 95 An Ethnologue Country Report 25 pp Languages of Ethiopia 14 95 An Ethnologue Country Report 69 pp Languages of Fiji 9 95 An Ethnologue Country Report 21 pp Languages of Finland 9 95 An Ethnologue Country Report 26

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  • Abbreviations | Ethnologue
    the Task FUNAI Fundação Nacional do Indio FUNASA Fundação Nacional do Saude GILLBT Ghana Institute of Linguistics Literacy and Bible Translation GRN Global Recordings Network GXLOUS Guangxi Language and Orthography Use Situation IBT Indian Bible Translators IEM Indian Evangelical Mission IEPE Instituto de Pesquisa e Formação Indígena IICCC India Institute for Cross Cultural Communication IMA India Missions Association IMB International Mission Board INALI Instituto Nacional de Lenguas Indigenas INDEC Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos INEGI Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía INF International Nepal Fellowship ISA Instituto Socioambientão ISEAS Institute for Southeast Asian Studies ISO International Organization for Standardization JHEOA Jabatan Hal Ehwal Orang Asli km kilometer s L1 L2 first language second or other additional language LBT Lutheran Bible Translators Lg Dev Language development Lg Use Language use LGA Local Government Area LLG Local Level Government area LWC language of wider communication m meter s MARC Missions Advanced Research and Communications Center MSSS Ministere de la Santé et des Services Sociaux NBTT Nigeria Bible Translation Trust NCIP National Commission for Indigenous Peoples NDFN Nepali Federation of the Deaf NILS National Indigenous Languages Survey NLCI New Life Computer Institute NMNML National Minorities and National Minority Languages NP noun phrase NT New Testament NTM New Tribes Mission NWFP Northwest Frontier Province NWT Northwest Territories OCEI Oficina Central de Estadística e Informática OCIP Organización de Cabildos Indígenas del Putumayo OMF Overseas Missionary Fellowship OSV Object Subject Verb OT Old Testament OVS Object Verb Subject PBT Pioneer Bible Translators PCS Protestant Church in Sabah Malaysia pej pejorative PIB Pueblos Indígenas de Bolivia pl plural RLLG Rural Local Level Government Papua New Guinea sg singular SIL SIL International SOV Subject Object Verb SV Subject Verb SVO Subject Verb Object TEAM The Evangelical Alliance Mission Type Typological information UBS United Bible Societies UKAW Artha

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  • Bibliography of Ethnologue Data Sources | Ethnologue
    L 2002 Endangered language A case study of Sansiboli Language in India 2 http www languageinindia com dec2002 sansi html Accessed 15 October 2012 Guthrie M and A N Tucker eds 1956 Linguistic survey of the Northern Bantu Borderland London Oxford University Press for International Africa Institute Gómez Rendón J 2007 Grammatical borrowing in Imbabura Quichua Ecuador In Y Matras and J Sakel eds Grammatical borrowing in cross linguistic perspective pp 481 521 Berlin Walter de Gruyter Mouton Güldemann T 1998 San languages for education A linguistic short survey and proposal on behalf of the Molteno early literacy and language development project in Namibia Okahandja National Institute of Educational Development Ministry of Basic Education and Culture Güldemann T 2003 Khoisan languages In W Frawley ed International encyclopedia of linguistics 2nd Vol 4 pp 359 362 New York Oxford University Press Güldemann T and R Vossen 2000 Khoisan In B Heine and D Nurse eds African languages An introduction pp 99 122 Cambridge Cambridge University Press GXLOUS 2005 Guangxi language and orthography use survey Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region Language Commission Nanning China Guangxi Education Press Haacke W H G 2008 Linguistic hypotheses on the origin of Namibian Khoekhoe speakers Southern African Humanities 20 163 177 Haacke W H G and E E Elderkin eds 1997 Namibian languages Reports and papers Namibian African Studies 4 Cologne Rüdiger Köppe Verlag Haan J W 2001 The grammar of Adang a Papuan language spoken on the island of Alor East Nusa Tenggara Indonesia Ph D thesis University of Sydney Haboud M 2003 Quichua and Spanish in the Ecuadorian highlands The effects of long term contact Quito Quality Print Cia Ltda Hajek J 2006 On the edge of the Pacific Indonesia and East Timor In D Cunningham D E Ingram and K Sumbuk eds Language diversity in the Pacific endangerment and survival pp 122 131 Clevedon UK Multilingual Matters Hajo Z 1994 Die kurdische Sprache und ihre Dialekte Ein Beitrag zur Standardisierung des Kurdischen Kurdologie Studien zu Sprache Geschichte Gesellschaft und Politik Kurdistans und der Kurden und Kurdinnen 73 82 Berlin Allgemeiner Studierendenausschuss der Frei Univesität Berlin Hale A 1982 Research on Tibeto Burman languages Trends in Linguistics State of the Art Report 14 Berlin Mouton Hall E 1983 Ghanaian languages Accra Asempa Hall R A Jr 1966 Pidgin and creole languages Ithaca NY Cornell University Press Hall R A Jr 1974 External history of the Romance languages New York American Elsevier Publishing Co Hamilton A J Perla and L C Robinson 2013 A psycholinguistic assessment of language loss in Eastern Indonesia Evidence from the HALA project In M C Jones and S Ogilvie eds Keeping languages alive Documentation revitalization and pedagogy pp 16 28 Cambridge Cambridge University Press Hamm C 2004 A sociolinguistic survey of the Glavda Cineni and Vemgo Mabas languages of Cameroon and Nigeria rapid appraisal Yaoundé SIL Cameroon Hancock I F ed 1979 Romani sociolinguistics International Journal of the Sociology of Language 19 The Hague Mouton Hancock I F 1974 Shelta A problem of classification In D De Camp and I F Hancock eds Pidgins and creoles Current trends and prospects pp 130 137 Washington D C Georgetown University Press Hancock I F 1980 The Language of the Texas Afro Seminoles Brackettville TX Seminole Negro Scout Historical Association Hancock I F 1980 The Texas Seminoles and their language Austin TX University of Texas at Austin Hancock I F 1984 Romani and Angloromani In P Trudgill ed Language in the British Isles pp 367 383 Cambridge Cambridge University Press Hancock I F 1984 Shelta and Polari In P Trudgill ed Language in the British Isles pp 384 403 Cambridge Cambridge University Press Hancock I F 1985 A preliminary structural sketch of Trinidad Creole French Amsterdam Creole Studies 8 27 40 Hancock I F 1987 A preliminary classification of the Anglophone Atlantic Creoles with syntactic data from thirty three representative dialects In G Gilbert ed Pidgin and Creole languages Essays in memory of John E Reinecke pp 264 334 Honolulu The University Press of Hawai i Hancock I F 1988 Romani The language of the Gypsies Gamut 23 8 12 Hancock I F 1990 A grammar of the Hungarian Slovak Carpathian Bashaldo Romungro Romani language Manchaca TX International Romani Union Hancock I F 1990 The Romani speech community In V Edwards and S Alladina eds Multilingualism in the British Isles pp 96 97 Longman Linguistic Library London Longman Hancock I F 1992 The social and linguistic development of Scandoromani In E H Jahr ed Language contact Theoretical and empirical studies pp 37 52 Berlin Mouton de Gruyter Hansson G 1991 The Rai of eastern Nepal Ethnic and linguistic grouping Findings of the Linguistic Survey of Nepal Kirtipur Nepal Centre for Nepal and Asian Studies Tribhuvan University Harris M 1987 French In B Comrie ed The world s major languages pp 210 235 London Croom Helm Harrison B and L Marmen 1996 Focus on Canada Languages in Canada Scarborough Ontario Statistics Canada and Prentice Hall Canada Hattaway P 2000 Operation China Pasadena William Carey Library Haugen E 1992 Scandinavian languages In W Bright ed Oxford international encyclopedia of linguistics Vol 3 pp 375 379 Oxford Oxford University Press Headland T H 1989 Population decline in a Philippine Negrito hunter gatherer society American Journal of Human Biology 1 59 72 Healey A 1964 The Ok language family in New Guinea Ph D dissertation Australian National University Heegård Petersen J 2006 Local case marking in Kalasha Ph D dissertation Department of Nordic Studies and Linguistics University of Copenhagen Heine B 1968 Die Verbreitung und Gliederung der Togorestsprachen Kölner Beiträge zur Afrikanistik Band 1 Berlin Dietrich Reimer Heine B and W J G Möhlig 1980 Language and dialect atlas of Kenya 1 Geographical and historical introduction language and society selected bibliography Berlin Dietrich Reimer Verlag Hercus L A and P A Austin 2004 The Yarli Languages In C Bowern and H Koch eds Australian Languages Classification and the Comparative Method pp 207 222 Amsterdam John Benjamins Hessmann J 1992 News from Germany Signpost the newsletter of the International Sign Linguistics Association 3 5 51 53 Hetzron R ed 1997 The Semitic languages New York Routledge Himmelmann N P 2001 Sourcebook on Tomini Tolitoli languages General information and word lists Pacific Linguistics 511 Canberra Australian National University Himmelmann N P and J U Wolff 1999 Toratán Ratahan Languages of the World Materials 130 Munich LINCOM Europa Hinton B 2000 The languages of Wetar Recent survey results and word lists with notes on Tugun grammar In C E Grimes ed Spices from the east Papers in languages of eastern Indonesia pp 105 139 Pacific Linguistics 503 Canberra Australian National University Hinton L 1994 Flutes of fire Essays on California Indian languages Berkeley Heyday Books Hinton L 2007 Languages of California In O Miyaoka O Sakiyama and M E Krauss eds The vanishing languages of the Pacific Rim pp 442 459 Oxford Oxford University Press Hoffman M S ed 1991 World almanac and book of facts Mahwah NJ World Almanac Books Holes C 1988 The typology of Omani Arabic dialects Proceedings of the BRISMES International Conference on Middle Eastern Studies pp 12 21 Leeds University of Leeds Holes C 1990 Gulf Arabic New York Routledge Holm J A 1989 Pidgins and Creoles Cambridge Cambridge University Press Holzknecht S 1988 Word taboo and its implications for language change in the Markham family of languages Papua New Guinea Language and Linguistics in Melanesia 18 43 69 Holzknecht S 1989 The Markham languages of Papua New Guinea Pacific Linguistics C 115 Canberra Australian National University Hooley B A 1971 Austronesian languages of the Morobe District Papua New Guinea Oceanic Linguistics 10 79 151 Hooley B A and K McElhanon 1970 Languages of the Morobe District New Guinea In S A Wurm and D C Laycock eds Pacific Linguistic studies in honour of Arthur Capell pp 1065 1094 Pacific Linguistics C 13 Canberra Australian National University Hopkins B L 1995 Contribution à une étude de la syntaxe Diola Fogny Ph D dissertation Université Cheikh Anta Diop de Dakar Hopper J H ed 1967 Indians of Brazil in the twentieth century ICR Studies 2 Washington D C Institute for Cross Cultural Research Hoyer K 2004 The sociolinguistic situation of Finland Swedish Deaf people and their language Finland Swedish Sign Language In M van Herreweghe and M Vermeerbergen eds To the lexicon and beyond Sociolinguistics in European deaf communities The sociolinguistics in deaf communities series pp 3 23 Washington D C Gallaudet University Hoyer K 2007 Albanian Sign Language Language contact international sign and gesture In D Quinto Pozos ed Sign languages in contact pp 195 234 Washington D C Gallaudet University Press Huang L M 2000 Focus system of Mayrinax Atayal a syntactic semantic and pragmatic perspective Oceanic Linguistics 39 364 390 Hudson A B 1978 Linguistic relations among Bornean peoples with special reference to Sarawak an interim report Studies in Third World Societies 3 1 44 Hudson J 1987 Languages of the Kimberley region Broome Western Australia Catholic Education Kimberley Regional Office Huffman F E 1976 The register problem in fifteen Mon Khmer languages In P N Jenner L C Thompson and S Starosta eds Austroasiatic studies Vol I Oceanic Linguistics Special Publications 13 pp 567 589 Honolulu The University of Hawai i Press Hugoniot R D ed 1970 A bibliographical index of the lesser known languages and dialects of India and Nepal Kathmandu Summer Institute of Linguistics IMA 1997 Peoples of India Chennai India India Missions Association Ichihashi Nakayama K 2004 Grammatacization of to and away A unified account of k and m in Hualapai In E Contini Morava R S Kirsner and B Rodríguez Bachiller eds Cognitive and communicative approaches to linguistic analysis pp 261 276 Amsterdam and Philadelphia John Benjamins Ichihashi Nakayama K Y Yumitani and A Y Yamamoto 2007 Languages of the Southwest United States In O Miyaoka O Sakiyama and M E Krauss eds The vanishing languages of the Pacific Rim pp 460 474 Oxford linguistics Oxford Linguistics Oxford Oxford University Press Idiata D F 2007 Les langues du Gabon Donnees en vue de l elaboration d un atlas linguistique Paris L Harmattan Idris M S 2005 Tigré dialects Journal of Eritrean Studies 5 1 45 73 Idris M S 2010 Is Dahalik a dialect of Tigré In G Lusini ed Proceedings of the international workshop on history and language of the Tigré speaking peoples Studi Africanisti Serie Etiopica 8 Naples Università degli studi di Napoli L orientale Ingham B 1982 Northeast Arabian dialects London Kegan Paul International Ingham B 1994 Najdi Arabic Central Arabian Amsterdam John Benjamins Instituto Cervantes 2012 El Español Una lengua viva Madrid Instituto Cervantes http eldiae es wp content uploads 2012 07 2012 el espanol en el mundo pdf Accessed 2 16 2015 ISO 2007 ISO 639 3 2007 Codes for the representation of names of languages Part 3 Alpha 3 code for comprehensive coverage of languages Geneva International Organization for Standardization Izadi M 1992 The Kurds A concise handbook Cambridge Harvard University Press Jacobs B 2009 The Upper Guinea origins of Papiamentu Linguistic and historical evidence Diachronica 26 3 319 379 Jacquot A 1971 Les langues du Congo Brazzaville Inventaire et classification Cahiers de l Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique d Outre Mer ORSTOM serie sciences humaines 8 4 349 357 Jacquot A 1978 Le Gabon In D Barreteau ed Inventaire des études linguistiques sur les pays d afrique noire d expression française et sur Madagascar pp 493 503 Paris Conseil International de la Langue Française Janhunen J ed 2003 The Mongolic languages London Routledge Janhunen J 1989 A Sino Finnish joint expedition to the minority nationalities of northern China Suomalais Ugrilaisen Seuran Aikakauskiria 82 277 279 Jastrow O 1978 Die Mesopotamisch Arabischen qeltu Dialekte Wiesbaden Franz Steiner GmbH Jenewari C E W 1989 Ijoid In J Bendor Samuel and R L Hartell eds The Niger Congo languages A classification and description of Africa s largest language family pp 105 118 Lanham MD University Press of America Jiafa Ji 1994 Yi language dialect study Project of the National Social Sciences Beijing Minzu Press Jie D 2007 Bumang language research Research into newly discovered languages of China series D Bejing People s Publishing House Johnston R L 1980 Nakanai of New Britain The grammar of an Oceanic language Pacific Linguistics B 70 Canberra Australian National University Johnstone P 1993 Operation world Grand Rapids Zondervan Publishing House Johnstone P and J Mandryk 2001 Operation world Waynesboro Paternoster Lifestyle Johnstone T M 1967 Eastern Arabian dialect studies London Oxford University Press Jones R B 1988 Proto Burmese as a test of reconstruction In C Duncan Rose and T Vennemann eds On Language Rhetorica phonologica syntactica A festschrift for Robert P Stockwell pp 203 211 London and New York Routledge Jordan Diller K and J Diller 2004 The Prai of Northern Thailand A sociolinguistic survey of a Mon Khmer language Mon Khmer Studies 34 19 45 Jungraithmayr H 1981 Inventaire des langues tchadiques In G Manessy ed Les langues dans le monde ancien et moderne 1 Les langues de l Afrique Subsaharienne pp 407 413 Paris Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique CNRS Kakumasu J Y 1968 Urubú sign language International Journal of American Linguistics 34 4 275 281 Kamarah S U 2001 The educational system of Sierra Leone In Gale Group ed World education encyclopedia 3 Detroit Schirmer Books Kara G 1990 Ural Altaische Jahrbücher Internationale Zeitschrift für Nord Eurasien 62 167 168 Kassell A and M Potter 2011 A sociolinguistic profile of the Abadi Language group SIL Electronic Survey Reports 30 Dallas SIL International http www sil org resources publications entry 41626 Accessed 2 16 2015 Katzner K 1975 The languages of the world New York Funk and Wagnalls Kawi D M R M T Lauder B Aritonang N Martis Ayatrohaedi F A Datang H Astar and W Kurniawati 2002 Penelitian Kekerabatan dan Pemetaan Bahasa bahasa daerah di Indonesia Provinsi Kalimantan Timur Jakarta Pusat Bahasa Kaye A S 1987 Arabic In B Comrie ed The world s major languages pp 664 685 London Croom Helm Kaye A S 1988 Review of Benabdi Linda C Lexical expansion in the Maghrib the functional linguistics corpus Language 64 1 210 Kedrebeogo G Z Yago and T Hien 1988 Burkina Faso Carte linguistique Burkina Faso Institut Géographique du Burkina and Institut de Recherche des Sciences Sociales et Humaines Kemaloglu Y K and P Y Kemaloglu 2012 The history of sign language and deaf education in Turkey Kulak Burun Bogaz Ihtis Derg Journal of ear nose and throat 22 2 65 76 Kibrik A E 1991 The problem of endangered languages in the USSR In R H Robins and E M Uhlenbeck eds Endangered languages pp 257 273 Oxford Berg Publishers Kiefer C M 2009 Parachi In G Windfuhr ed The Iranian languages pp 693 720 London Routledge Kiessling R and M Mous 2003 The lexical reconstruction of West Rift Southern Cushitic Cologne and New York Rüdiger Köppe Verlag King J K and J W King eds 1984 Languages of Sabah A survey report Pacific Linguistics C 78 Canberra Australian National University King J T 1994 Picking up where Hodgson left off Further notes on Dhimal Journal of the Tibeto Burman Area 17 2 121 132 Kinkade M D 1991 The decline of native languages in Canada In R H Robins and E M Uhlenbeck eds Endangered languages pp 157 176 Oxford and New York Berg Publishers Klamer M and M A F Klamer 2010 A grammar of Tewa Berlin and New York Mouton de Gruyter Kloss H 1978 Die Entwicklung neuer germanischer Kultursprachen von 1800 bis 1850 Munich Pohl Kloss H and G D McConnell eds 1974 Linguistic composition of the nations of the world Central and Western South Asia Vol 1 Sainte Foy Les Presses de l Université Laval Kloss H and G D McConnell eds 1981 Linguistic composition of the nations of the world Oceania Publications of the International Center for Research on Bilingualism Quebec Les Presses de l université Laval Koentjaraninggrat ed 1971 Manusia dan kebudayaan di Indonesia Jakarta Djambatan Kooij J G 1987 Dutch In B Comrie ed The world s major languages pp 139 156 London Croom Helm Koryakov Y B 2006 Атлас кавказских языков Moscow Institute of Linguistics Russian Academy of Sciences Koul O and R Schmidt 1983 Kashmiri A sociolinguistic survey Delhi Madaan Publishers Krauss M E 1992 The world s languages in crisis Language 68 4 10 Krauss M E 1997 The indigenous languages of the North A report on their present state In H Shoji and J Janhunen eds Northern minority languages Problems of survival pp 1 34 Osaka and Fairbanks National Museum of Ethnology and Alaska Native Language Center University of Alaska Fairbanks Krauss M E 2007 Native languages of Alaska In O Miyaoka O Sakiyama and M E Krauss eds The vanishing languages of the Pacific Rim pp 406 417 Oxford linguistics Oxford Oxford University Press Kroeger P R 1985 Linguistic relations among the Dusunic groups in the Kota Marudu District Borneo Research Bulletin 17 1 31 46 Kroeger P R 1986 Intelligibility patterns in Sabah and the problem of prediction In P A Geraghty L Carrington and S A Wurm eds FOCAL I Papers from the Fourth International Congress on Austronesian Linguistics pp 309 339 Pacific Linguistics C 93 Canberra Australian National University Kropp Dakubu M E and D Kropp eds 1988 The languages of Ghana International African Institute Paul Kegan Kruspe N 2009 Loanwords in Ceq Wong an Austroasiatic language of Peninsular Malaysia In M Haspelmath and U Tadmor eds Loanwords in the world s languages pp 659 685 Berlin De Gruyter Mouton Kubus O and A Hohenberger 2011 The phonetics and phonology of TID Turkish Sign Language bimanual alphabet In R Channon and H van der Hulst eds Formational units in sign languages pp 43 63 Berlin de Gruyter and Nijmegen Ishara Press Kuhn N Š T A Ciciliani and R B Wilbur 2006 Phonological parameters in Croatian Sign Language In R B Wilbur ed Investigating understudied sign languages Croatian SL and Austrian SL with comparison to American SL Sign Language and Linguistics special issue 9 pp 33 70 Kuku N A 2010 Laru vowel harmony In R Norton ed Occasional Papers on the Study of Sudanese Languages 10 Nairobi SIL International Kupčinskas D 1999 Issues in standardizing Lithuanian Sign Language Lituanus Lithuanian quarterly journal of Arts and Sciences 45 1 17 20 Kusters A 2012 The Gong Gong Was Beaten Adamorobe a deaf village in Ghana and its marriage prohibition for deaf partners Sustainability 4 10 2765 2784 http www mdpi com 2071 1050 4 10 2765 Laakso J A Sarhimaa S S Åkermark and R Toivanen 2013 Summary of the research project ELDIA European Language Diversity for All Vienna University of Vienna https phaidra univie ac at detail object o 304815 Accessed 2 16 2015 Ladefoged P R Glick and C Criper 1972 Language in Uganda London Oxford University Press Lal M ed 1991 Navaratri to Sarvasena New Delhi Sahitya Lamberti M 1986 Map of Somali dialects in the Somali Democratic Republic Hamburg Helmut Buske Verlag Landaburu J 1979 El tratamiento gramatical de la verdad en la lengua andoque Revista Colombiana de Antropología 20 81 100 Landerman P 1982 Las sibilantes castellanas quechuas y aimaras en el siglo XVI Un enigma tridimensional In R Cerrón Palomino ed Aula quechua pp 203 234 Lima Ediciones Signo Larsen T W 1984 Case markings and subjecthood in Kipeá Kirirí In Subordination Proceedings of the annual meeting o f the Berkeley Linguistics Society 10 pp 189 205 Berkeley CA Berkeley Linguistics Society Laskowske T V and K B Laskowske 1987 Seko area Kabupaten Luwu In T Friberg ed Universitas Hasanuddin SIL South Sulawesi sociolinguistic surveys 1983 1987 pp 41 57 Workpapers in Indonesian Languages and Cultures 5 Ujung Pandang Summer Institute of Linguistics Lauder M R M T F Ayatrohaedi H Datang B Lapoliwa F Aritonang S Feirizal N Martis W Kurniawati and H Astar 2000 Penelitian kekerabatan dan pemetaan bahasa bahasa daerah di Indonesia Propinsi Sulawesi Tengah Jakarta Pusat Pembinaan dan Pengembangan Bahasa Departemen Pendidikan Nasional LeClerc J 2009 Guinée Bissau L aménagement linguistique dans le monde Québec Trésor de la Langue Française au Québec TLFQ Université Laval http www tlfq ulaval ca axl afrique Guinee Bissau htm Accessed 15 October 2012 LeClerc J 2010 Mauritanie L aménagement linguistique dans le monde Québec Trésor de la Langue Française au Québec Université Laval http www tlfq ulaval ca axl afrique mauritanie htm Accessed 15 October 2012 LeRouvreur A 1989 Sahe liens et sahariens du Tchad Bibliothe que Peiresc 6 Paris L Harmattan Lebar F M G C Hickey and J K Musgrave 1964 Ethnic groups of mainland Southeast Asia New Haven Human Relations Area Files Press HRAF Lee M B Rai B K Rai and C Boone 2005 Bayung Rai A sociolinguistic survey Kirtipur Nepal Centre for Nepal and Asian Studies Tribhuvan University Leeson L and J I Saeed 2012 Irish Sign Language Edinburgh Edinburgh University Press Leitch M 2004 Langue et dialecte au sud du district d Epena SIL Electronic Survey Reports 2004 007 Dallas SIL International http www sil org silesr abstract asp ref 2004 007 Accessed 15 October 2012 Lewis E D and C E Grimes 1995 Sika An introduction and wordlist In D T Tryon ed Comparative Austronesian dictionary part 1 pp 601 609 Berlin Mouton de Gruyter Lewis M P 1999 Language development as particle wave and field Notes on Sociolinguistics 4 1 3 19 Lewis M P and G F Simons 2010 Assessing endangerment Expanding Fishman s GIDS Revue Roumaine de Linguistique 55 2 103 120 http www lingv ro RRL 2 2010 art01Lewis pdf Accessed 11 January 2011 Li Fang gui 1973 Languages and dialects of China Journal of Chinese Linguistics 1 1 13 Li Fengxiang and L J Whaley 2009 Oroqen vocabulary In M Haspelmath and T Uri eds Loanwords in the world s languages a comparative handbook pp 525 574 Berlin De Gruyter Li Jinfang 1997 Buyang language research Beijing Central Nationalities University Press Li Jinfang 2006 A survey of endangered languages of the Southwest Region Beijing Central Nationalities University Press Li P J K 1990 Classification of Formosan languages Lexical evidence The Bulletin of the Institute of History and Philology Academia Sinica 61 4 809 844 Liang Min and Zhang Junru 2002 Study of the Biao language Beijing Central Nationalities University Press Liang Min 1990 The Buyang language In J A Edmondson ed Kadai Discussion in Kadai and Southeast Asian linguistics Vol 2 pp 13 55 Arlington TX University of Texas at Arlington Lieberson S 1981 Language diversity and language contact Palo Alto Stanford University Press Liljegren H 2008 Towards a grammatical description of Palula An Indo Aryan language of the Hindu Kush Stockholm Department of Linguistics Stockholm University Lim S 1981 Baba Malay the language of the Straits born Chinese M A thesis Monash University Australia Lin Xiangrong 1993 Jiarongyu yanjiu Chengdu Sichuan Nationality Press Lobel J W 2004 Old Bikol um vs mag and the loss of a morphological paradigm Oceanic Linguistics 43 2 469 497 Lobel J W 2005 The angry register of the Bikol languages of the Philippines In Hsiu chuan Liao and C R Galvez Rubino eds Current issues in Philippine linguistics and anthropology Parangal kay Lawrence A Reid pp 149 166 Manila Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines Lobel J W 2010 Manide An undescribed Philippine language Oceanic Linguistics 29 2 478 510 Lobel J W 2012 Issues in Philippine and Philippine type languages Ph D dissertation University of Hawaii Loos E E 1973 Algunas implicaciones de la reconstrucción de un fragmento de la gramática del proto pano In E E Loos ed Estudios Panos pp 263 282 Serie Lingüística Peruana 11 Yarinacocha Peru Instituto Lingüístico de Verano Lopis J 1980 Phonologie et morphologie nominale du Noon parler de Ngente Thèse de 3e cycle Institut National des Langues et Civilisation Orientales Lorenzino G A 1999 The Angolar Creole Portuguese of São Tomé Its grammar and sociolinguistic history Munich LINCOM Europa Loski R A and G M Loski 1989 The languages indigenous to Eastern Seram and adjacent islands Workpapers in Indonesian Languages and Cultures 6 103 142 Lothers L and M D Lothers 2007 Pahari and Pothwari A sociolinguistic survey Frontier Language Institute Language and Culture Series 2 Peshawar Pakistan Frontier Language Institute Lukas J 1937 A study of the Kanuri language Grammar and vocabulary London Oxford University Press Lule D and L Wallin 2010 Transmission of sign languages in Africa In D Brentari ed Sign Languages pp 113 130 Cambridge Cambridge University Press Lunsford W A 2001 An overview of linguistic structures in Torwali a language of Northern Pakistan M A thesis University of Texas at Arlington Lynch J and T Crowley 2001 Languages of Vanuatu A new survey and bibliography Pacific Linguistics 517 Canberra Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies Australian National University Mabiala J 1996 Description phonologique du Kiyoombi dialecte Kongo du Congo Diplôme d Etudes Supérieures Université Marien Ngouabi Maddieson I U 1991 Utset A Chamic tone language of Hainan Paper presented at Sixth International Conference of Austronesian Linguistics Honolulu Maho J F 1998 Few people many tongues The languages of Namibia Windhoek Gamsberg Macmillan Maho J F and B Sands 2002 The languages of Tanzania A bibliography Orientalia et africana gothoburgensia 17 Göteborg Göteborg University Makoni S and A Pennycook eds 2006 Disinventing and reconstituting languages Bilingual education and bilingualism Bristol UK Multilingual Matters Manessy G ed 1981 Les langues dans le monde ancien et moderne 1 Les langues de l Afrique Subsaharienne Paris Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique CNRS Manessy G 1961 Le bwamu et ses dialectes Publication de la Section de Langues et Litteraires 9 Dakar Facultie des Lettres et Sciences Humaines Manessy G 1975 Les langues Oti Volta Classification généalogique d un groupe des langues voltaïques Paris Société des Études Linguistiques et Anthropologiques de France SELAF Manessy G and S Sauvageot 1963 Wolof et Sérer études de phonétique et de grammaire descriptive Dakar Université de Dakar Faculté des Lettres et des Sciences humaines Manson K 2010 A Grammar of Kayan a Tibeto Burman language Ph D dissertation LaTrobe University Manson K 2011 The subgrouping of Karen Journal of the South East Asian Linguistics Society 21 11 13 Marrison G E 1967 The classification of the Naga languages of north east India Ph D dissertation University of London Marshall C 2000 A phonological description of Fordata In C E Grimes ed Spices from the east Papers in languages of eastern Indonesia pp 181 235 Pacific Linguistics 503 Canberra Australian National University Martens M 1989 The Badaic languages of Central Sulawesi In J N Sneddon ed Studies in Sulawesi linguistics part 1 pp 19 53 NUSA Linguistic Studies of Indonesian and Other Languages in Indonesia 31 Jakarta Badan Penyelenggara Seri Nusa Universitas Atma Jaya Martin P W 1995 Whither the indigenous languages of Brunei Darussalem Oceanic Linguistics 34 1 27 43 Martin P W C Oxog and G Poedjosoedarmo eds 1996 Language use and language change in Brunei Darussalam Athens Ohio University Center for International Studies Maryott K R 1993 The Sangir language project A status report Penyelidikan bahasa dan perkembangan wawasannya Vol 1 pp 320 358 Jakarta Masyarakat Linguistik Indonesia Marçais P 1977 Esquisse grammaticale de L Arabe Maghrebin Paris Librairie d Amerique et d Orient Masica C P 1991 The Indo Aryan languages Cambridge Cambridge University Press Masinambow E K M and P Haenen 2002 Bahasa Indonesia dan Bahasa Daerah Jakarta Yayasan Obor Matisoff J A 1991 Endangered languages of Mainland Southeast Asia In R H Robins and E M Uhlenbeck eds Endangered languages pp 189 228 Oxford Berg Publishers Matisoff J A S P Baron and J B Lowe 1996 Languages and dialects of Tibeto Burman Sino Tibetan Etymological Dictionary and Thesaurus Monograph Series 1 and 2 Berkeley University of California Press Matthias W 2011 Domaaki In T I Oranskaia Y V Mazurova A A Kibrik L I Kulikov and A Y Rusakov eds Iazyki mira novye indoariiskie iazyki Languages of the world New Indo Aryan languages pp 165 194 Moscow Academia Maurer P 1995 L Angolar Un créole afro portugais parlé à São Tomé Notes de grammaire textes vocabulaires Hamburg Helmut Buske Verlag Mayers M K ed 1966 Languages of Guatemala Janua Linguarum Series Practica 23 The Hague Mouton McCarus E N 2009 Kurdish In G Windfuhr ed The Iranian languages pp 587 633 Routledge Language Family Series London and New York Routledge McConnell G D ed 1995 The written languages of the world A survey of the degree and modes of use Quebec City Laval University Press McConvell P and N Thieberger 2001 State of indigenous languages in Australia 2001 Australia State of the Environment Second Technical Paper Series Natural and Cultural Heritage Canberra Department of the Environment and Heritage McCrum R W Cran and R MacNeil 1986 The story of English New York Elisabeth Sifton Books Viking McElhanon K A 1970 The Selepet language within the Finisterre Huon phylum New Guinea Ph D dissertation Australian National University McElhanon K A 1978 A classification of the languages of the Morobe Province Papua New Guinea with the linguistic situation of individual villages Canberra Australian National University McGregor W 1988 Handbook of Kimberley languages Vol 1 General information Pacific Linguistics C 105 Canberra Australian National University McGregor W and A Rumsey 2009 Worrorran revisited The case for genetic relations among languages of the Northern Kimberley Region of Western Australia Pacific Linguistics 600 Canberra Australian National University McKaughan H P and M L Forman 1981 Pidgin in Hawaii Da Kine talk serves useful purposes Ampersand 14 4 11 15 McSweeney K 2002 A demographic profile of the Tawahka Amerindians of Honduras Geographical Review 92 3 398 414 Mead D E 1999 The Bungku Tolaki languages of South Eastern Sulawesi Indonesia Pacific Linguistics D 91 Canberra Australian National University Mead D E 2001 A preliminary sketch of the Bobongko language In W D Laidig ed Studies in Sulawesi linguistics pp 61 94 NUSA Linguistic Studies of Indonesian and Other Languages in Indonesia 49 Jakarta Badan Penyelenggara Seri Nusa Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya Mead D E and M Mead 1991 Survey of Pamona dialects of Kecamatan Bungku Tengah Workpapers in Indonesian Languages and Cultures Ujung Pandaar SIL and Universitas Hasanuddin Mead D E M Y Lee and C Neveux 2007 Mapping Indonesian Bajau communities in Sulawesi SIL Electronic Survey Reports 2007 019 Dallas SIL International http www sil org silesr abstract asp ref 2007 019 Accessed 15 October 2012 Mead M 1956 New lives for old cultural transformation Manus 1928 1953 New York Morrow Meho L I 2002 The Kurds in Lebanon The International Journal of Kurdish Studies 16 January 2002 59 82 http www accessmylibrary com article 1G1 132797081 kurds lebanon social and html Accessed 18 October 2012 Menon M T ed 1996 Encyclopedia of Dravidian tribes Vol 1 2 Thiruvananthapura The DLA Publications Messing G M 1980 Politics and national language in Albania In V Coetsem and L R Waugh eds Contributions to historical linguistics Vol 3 pp 270 280 Leiden E J Brill Michalchenko V Y ed 2003 Pismennye yazyki mira Yazyki Rossiyskoy federatsii 2 Written languages of the world Languages of the Russian Federation 2 Sociolinguistic Encyclopedia Moscow Academia Migliazza E C 1985 Languages of the Orinoco Amazon region Current status In H E Manelis Klein and L R Stark eds South American Indian languages pp 17 139 Austin University of Texas Press Miller W R 1984 The classification of the Uto Aztecan languages based on lexical evidence International Journal of American Linguistics 50 1 1 24 Mitchell R E T A Young B Bachleda and M A Karchmer 2006 How many people use ASL in the United States Why estimates need updating Sign Language Studies 6 3 306 335 Mixco M 1978 Cochimi and Proto Yuman Lexical and syntactic evidence for the new language family in Lower California Anthropological Papers 101 Salt Lake City University of Utah Mohammed N 2009 Bahasa Melayu kreol Chetti Melaka deskripsi leksiko fonologi Penang Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia Mohan P and P Zador 1986 Discontinuity in a life cycle The death of Trinidad Bhojpuri Language 62 291 319 Moody D C and J R Walton 1984 The east coast Bajau languages In J K King and J W King eds Languages of Sabah A survey report pp 113 123 Pacific Linguistics C 78 Canberra Australia National University Moore D 2006 Brazil Language situation In K Brown ed Encyclopedia of language and linguistics 2nd Vol 2 pp 117 128 Oxford Elsevier Morey S 2006 Small languages in a polylingual situation the case of Turung In R Elangaiyan R McKenna Brown N D M Ostler and M K Verma eds Vital voices Endangered languages and multilingualism Proceedings of the Tenth Foundation for Endangered Languages Conference pp 173 177 Mysore India Central Institute of Indian Languages and Foundation for Endangered Languages Morgan M 2004 Tracing the family tree Tree reconstruction of two sign language families Paper presented at 8th Conference of Theoretical Issues in Sign Language Research Sep 30 Oct 2 2004 Barcelona Morgenstierne G 1974 Languages of Nuristan and surrounding regions In K Jettmas ed Cultures of the Hindu Kush Selected papers from the Hindu Kush Cultural Conference held in Moesgard 1970 pp 1 10 Wiesbaden Franz Steiner GmbH Morse S A 1989 Five Rawang dialects compared plus more In D Bradley E J A Henderson and M Mazaudon eds Prosodic analysis and Asian linguistics To honour R K Sprigg pp 237 250 Pacific Linguistics C 104 Canberra Australia National University Moseley C ed 2010 Atlas of the World s Languages in Danger 3rd ed Paris UNESCO Publishing Moulton W G 1988 Mutual intelligibility among speakers of early Germanic dialects In D G Calder and T C Christy eds Germania Comparative studies in the Old Germanic languages and literatures pp 9 28 Wolfeboro NH D S Brewer Moñino Y 1988 Lexique comparatif des langues oubanguiennes collectif Publications du De partement langues et parole en Afrique centrale Paris Librairie Orientaliste Paul Geuthner S A Musa M 2011 The socioeconomic history of the Orang Kanaq of Johor Kajian Malaysia 29 1 47 74 Musgrave J 2007 A grammar of Neve ei Vanuatu Pacific Linguistics 587 Canberra Australian National University Mushin I 2012 A grammar of Western Garrwa Pacific Linguistics 637 Berlin de Gruyter Müller C 2012 Deaf education around the world from a German view BATOD Magazine British Association of Teachers of the Deaf September 2012 Rochester U K British Association of Teachers of the Deaf http www batod org uk content international models germany germany 0912 m pdf Accessed 2 16 2015 Naby E 1975 Les Assyriens d Union Sovietique Cahiers du Monde Russe et Sovietique 16 3 4 445 457 http www persee fr web revues home prescript article cmr 0008 0160 1975 num 16 3 1249 Nahhas R W 2007 Sociolinguistic survey of Mpi in Thailand SIL Electronic Survey Reports 2007 016 Dallas SIL International http www sil org silesr abstract asp ref 2007 016 Accessed 15 October 2012 Natarajan G V 1985 Abujmaria grammar Mysore Central Institute of Indian languages National Council for Special Education 2011 The education of deaf and hard of hearing children in Ireland Trim Ireland National Council for Special Education Neumann Holzschuh I 1985 Le cre ole de Beaux Bridge Louisiane e tude morphosyntaxique textes vocabulaire Kreolische Bibliothek 7 Hamburg Helmut Buske Verlag Newmark L P Hubbard and P Prifti 1982 Standard Albanian A reference grammar for students Palo Alto Stanford University Press Ngoran L L 1999 A sketch outline of the phonology of Ndemli M A thesis University of Yaoundé Nichols J 1995 Who are the Chechen Berkeley University of California http iseees berkeley edu articles nichols 1995 chechen pdf Nicolaï R 1979 Le Songhay Central Études Linguistiques 1 2 33 69 Nicolaï R 1981

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  • Credits | Ethnologue
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  • Three-letter Codes for Identifying Languages | Ethnologue
    data tables that the public may incorporate into their own database applications and dynamic web sites Prior to the publication of the 15th edition in 2005 the Ethnologue worked in cooperation with the International Organization for Standardization ISO to create a new international standard for language codes This was fully adopted in 2007 as ISO 639 3 Codes for the representation of names of languages Part 3 Alpha 3 code for comprehensive coverage of languages The current download tables are compatible with the latest updates to that standard Examples of efforts that are already using these codes as a standard for language identification are the Open Language Archives Community and its participating archives Any application that makes use of these language identifiers is just one click away from access to the full language descriptions that are available in the Ethnologue That is for any language identifier abc that may be stored in a database an application may present a link to the following URL in order to give the user access to the Ethnologue s description of that language http ethnologue com language abc The remainder of this document after describing the terms of use for the download tables describes their relationship to standards explains their structure gives some hints on how to use them and offers links for downloading them Terms of use You are welcome to download the code set and index information and incorporate the supplied tables into your own database application on condition that you do so in accordance with our Terms of Use statement Prev Next Overview Relation to Standards Structure of the Code Tables Using the Code Tables Downloading the Code Tables Browse by Countries Language Names Language Codes Language Families Map Titles Products Current Edition About Ethnologue Abbreviations Bibliography Credits Downloads FAQ Other

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  • Frequently asked questions | Ethnologue
    language learning materials Ethnologue itself won t help you learn a language There are many resources available for the widely known languages that can be found by doing a simple web search You can use the Other Resources link in each language entry to see what language documentation and literature might be available in the language The OLAC list of resources may provide a starting point for finding resources for the less commonly known languages where fewer resources are likely to be widely available What is the difference between a dormant language and an extinct language Both extinct languages and dormant languages no longer have any fully proficient L1 users The Ethnologue makes a distinction between the two however to reflect the differences that exist in the sociolinguistic status of these languages without users Although a dormant language is not used for daily life there is an ethnic community that associates itself with a dormant language and view the language as a symbol of that community s identity Though a dormant language has no proficient users it retains some social uses In contrast an extinct language is no longer claimed by any extant community as the language of their heritage identity Extinct languages are lacking in both users and societal uses Some extinct languages such as Latin may continue to be used as second languages only for specific restricted often vehicular functions that are generally not related to ethnic identity Why are there so many more living languages listed in the 17th edition 7106 than there are in the 16th 6909 This is a result of the introduction of EGIDS in the 17th edition The 188 languages that have been placed in the Dormant category EGIDS 9 were counted as extinct in the previous edition but are now being distinguished from Extinct EGIDS 10 and counted as living In many cases there are revitalization efforts underway to preserve and even revive these languages as part of the heritage of living ethnic communities While there may be no fully proficient speakers these languages cannot be accurately identified as extinct We believe this change aligns with the general consensus of language communities themselves and with the understanding of language preservation and documentation activists Which language is spoken in the most countries How many countries English eng It is spoken in 129 countries as an indigenous language or by a substantial immigrant group How many languages in the world are unwritten The exact number of unwritten languages is hard to determine Ethnologue 17th edition has data to indicate that of the currently listed 7 105 living languages 3 570 have a developed writing system We don t always know however if the existing writing systems are widely used That is while an alphabet may exist there may not be very many people who are literate and actually using the alphabet We have data to indicate that 696 languages are unwritten And for the remaining 2 839 languages we have no data What happened

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  • Language of the Day | Ethnologue
    ten most recently featured languages are listed in the RSS feed View the language of the day for 12 February 2016 Browse by Countries Language Names Language Codes Language Families Map Titles Products Current Edition About Ethnologue Abbreviations Bibliography Credits Downloads FAQ Other Products Ethnoblog Language of the Day Print Edition 17th Edition 16th Edition 15th Edition 14th Edition 13th Edition Related Sites SIL org ScriptSource ISO 639 3 Contact

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  • Contact Us | Ethnologue
    before contacting us to learn if the use you intend falls within the guidelines If not that page has instructions on how to request permission Technical questions or comments about this website Please choose Report a Technical Problem in the contact form below Contact the Ethnologue editor Editor Ethnologue c o International Linguistics Center 7500 West Camp Wisdom Road Dallas Texas 75236 USA Email Use the contact form below Contact the publisher SIL International Publications 7500 West Camp Wisdom Road Dallas TX 75236 5629 USA Telephone 972 708 7404 Fax 972 708 7363 Email Use the contact form below formerly the International Academic Bookstore Your name Your e mail address Subject Category Please choose Subscription Report a Technical Problem Report a Content Problem Ethnologue Editor Request Copyright Permissions Report a Problem with Script Information Script Editor Request a Custom Report Product or Data Suggest a Product Idea Contact Publisher About Order Processing Other Message Home page Leave this field blank Prev Next Further Information About the Ethnologue History of the Ethnologue Language Identification Language Status Plan of the Site Country Information Language Information Language Maps Acknowledgements Updates Corrections Contact Us Browse by Countries Language Names Language Codes Language Families Map

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