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  • Country Information | Ethnologue
    United Nations or another reliable source which is identified Country populations from these sources may be estimates based on population trends rather than the results of actual head counts General remarks The country information may also contain general remarks about the political status the geography or the population Principal languages Languages that have been identified as having a function at the nation wide level are listed here This includes all the languages that function at the national level as a working language or a language of identity or both whether this is by statute or is the de facto situation For a fuller discussion of these categories see Official recognition Literacy rate This is an estimate of the percentage of the population in the country that is literate in any language of the country Data are primarily from UNESCO but may also come from various other sources if more recent estimates are available Immigrant languages Immigrant languages are categorized as such if they are spoken by relatively recently arrived or transient populations which do not have a well established multi generational community of language users in the country Population estimates if known are shown in parentheses immediately following the language name These languages do not have a separate language entry in the language listings for the country and are not included in the language counts for the country Given the transitory nature of these populations and the difficulty in obtaining up to date information this listing may be incomplete Updated information on immigrant languages is welcomed General references This lists author year citations for published sources of general information about the country and its languages See Bibliography for the full bibliographic references for the cited works This list includes only suggestions for those who wish to begin to explore the language situation of the country in greater depth It is not intended to be an exhaustive list and more current works may be missing Suggestions for additional or more up to date general works on the languages of the country are solicited See Updates and corrections for submission instructions Deaf population There are millions of deaf and hearing impaired people in the world The country overview gives information on the number of audiologically deaf people which is generally larger than the number of deaf people who use a sign language The deaf sign languages listed in language entries are those used exclusively within deaf communities They do not include those like Signed English that spell out spoken languages used in the country See the fuller discussion under The problem of language identification Additional information on deafness and deaf sign languages is welcomed See Updates and corrections for submission instructions Recognized nationalities If the country has a system for officially recognizing nationalities within its borders it is described here The language entries for the country then use the Status section to identify the officially recognized nationality with which the individual languages are associated Language counts with profile graphic The number of

    Original URL path: http://www.ethnologue.com/about/country-info (2016-02-12)
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  • Language Maps | Ethnologue
    the way that we show the family association of each language and the overlap of languages A greater level of geographic detail is now included in the maps to aid in the location of languages within countries The maps are drawn using the Digital Chart of the World as the underlying geographic database which has a finer level of resolution than the base map used in editions prior to the 16th In that edition all the language polygons were repositioned to fit the greater detail of geographic features offered by that new database This is an ongoing process and we continue to improve the accuracy and precision with which the language areas are plotted particularly with the increased use of location data collected by GPS units which enables locations to be plotted directly into the existing databases The introduction of GPS data has also meant that the data is becoming increasingly detailed Smooth generalized curves are being replaced by more complex features and in some countries we are now able to provide a more accurate representation of the complexity where speakers from several language groups live in the same area We continue to look for ways to improve the depiction of the language groups on the maps The change to a primarily online format and multiple print volumes has given greater freedom to increase the number of maps We have taken advantage of this to redesign the maps of some countries at larger scales Also we continue to add to the maps the changes in the ISO 639 3 inventory of languages The complete geographic database used to produce these maps including the language polygons is available in a product jointly published with GMI named the World Language Mapping System see http www worldgeodatasets com language African equatorial countries use

    Original URL path: http://www.ethnologue.com/about/language-maps (2016-02-12)
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  • Acknowledgements | Ethnologue
    by Roger Hanggi Joe McCarthy Ray Uehara and Chad White who also serves as our webmaster Melinda Lyons ISO 639 3 Registrar along with Anthony Aristar and Damir Cavar at LinguistList have assisted us in keeping our database aligned with the ISO 639 3 inventory of identified languages The language maps have been produced under the direction of SIL s Lead Cartographer Irene Tucker by Matt Benjamin and Eva Horton with quality assurance and technical assistance from Stephen Tucker and additional research by Colin Davis and Paul Thomas We continue to review language family classifications under the general supervision of Colleen and Michael Ahland Most significant in this edition is a thorough reworking of the languages formerly classified as Khoisan We are grateful to Joshua Dyer for his research and for comments and guidance from Tom Güldemann Wilfrid Haacke Bernd Heine Kirk Miller Richard Rudowske Bonny Sands and Hessel Visser Production of this edition was implemented by the staff of SIL International s Global Publishing Services Department under the leadership of Alan Conner and with particular assistance from Gayle Sheehan The updated data reported in this edition reflect the cooperation and communications over the last year from many researchers in the field in SIL and other organizations but especially in addition to those named above the following who participated by reviewing correcting and updating data or by submitting online feedback Anvita Abbi Dany Adone Karl Anderbeck Anthony Aristar Peter Backstrom Denise Bailey John Berthelette Nancy Bishop Roger Blench Leoni Bouwer Mike Bryant Ed Brye John Carter Damir Cavar Brad Chamberlain Nate Cheeseman Ruth Cowan Swintha Danielsen Klass deVries Nico Doelman Matthew Dryer Josh Dyer Dave Eernisse Stephanie Eichentopf D Norman Geary Charles E Grimes William Hall Cameron Hamm Geri Harm Robyn Harvey Lee Hochstetler Richard Hoyle Bernard Hurch Ellen Hurst

    Original URL path: http://www.ethnologue.com/about/acknowledgements (2016-02-12)
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  • Updates and Corrections | Ethnologue
    http www sil org iso639 3 and click on Submitting change requests to find the change request form and the filing instructions Corrections If you believe any of the information about a language is in error Please provide details about the sources of your information including full bibliographic citations of published sources when applicable The submitter of any correction can expect to receive an initial acknowledgment from the Managing Editor of the Ethnologue Our staff will then seek to verify the proposed change before it is accepted This process may take some time as it generally involves making enquiries of individuals who are resident in the country or region where the language is spoken These persons may in turn make enquiries of others or consult published materials in order to perform the verification While we make every effort to inform the submitter of the results of our research and verification if you do not use the preferred method described below we cannot guarantee that a report of the outcome will be sent in every case Corrections even after they are accepted and entered in our database will only appear in our products when the next edition of the Ethnologue is released However if you use the Feedback tab online your feedback will be immediately available to readers on the web The preferred means of submitting corrections and additions is to create an account on this web site and use the Feedback tab on the page for the relevant language or country The advantage of giving feedback in this way is that it becomes part of the public record on the web site and everyone who is following the language or region will be notified of your comments Alternatively you may submit corrections and additions by means of the online contact

    Original URL path: http://www.ethnologue.com/about/updates-corrections (2016-02-12)
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  • Entering a new year together | Ethnologue
    that the data we have is correct concise and comprehensive We now have a cadre of 30 Field Contributors and will be expanding that number throughout 2016 Another way in which we have been able to improve the quality of the data is through cooperative research with scholars and community members in organized intensive data review projects Initially I called these events data audits Our intent was to cooperate with local experts in looking at the Ethnologue data for a specific country Together we audited that information to ensure that it was as complete and up to date as possible Over the last decade we have carried out these intensive data reviews in Kenya the Philippines Brazil Central and South America Nepal and most recently in Sabah Malaysia The data from the Sabah review carried out jointly with the Universiti Malaysia Sabah UMS is currently being entered into the database and will appear in the forthcoming 19th edition As you might expect these events take a lot of planning and coordination to make them happen and we are grateful to our partners in each case for their hard work in recruiting data reviewers distributing and collecting the data for review organizing the group meetings and in most cases providing a major part of the resources needed personnel venue and much of the funding Here at Ethnologue Central much of our preparatory work right now involves fairly mundane checking of the data to be sure the restructuring process has worked correctly We are also restoring a lot of the computerized magic that got broken when the structure of the database changed In addition we are awaiting the final results of the 2015 round of ISO 639 3 Change Requests and need to update our database based on those changes between now

    Original URL path: http://www.ethnologue.com/ethnoblog/m-paul-lewis/entering-new-year-together (2016-02-12)
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  • Ethnologue launches subscription service | Ethnologue
    are taking We have been working very actively with those who inquire about institutional and group e g classroom subscriptions to provide the greatest amount of access as possible at a more than reasonable cost We love the idea of open access and SIL has been at the forefront in making our resources available as widely and as freely as possible We were actively involved in establishing the Open Language Archives Community OLAC and we have encouraged community participation in the Ethnologue itself through the addition of the Feedback feature on every language and country page Providing sustainable access to the Ethnologue and its information is our goal We think that asking the most frequent users in high income countries to pay very minimal fees for that access is the most equitable way to achieve that sustainability Submitted by M Paul Lewis on Wed 2015 12 16 08 58 Maybe make it more obvious from individual pages I was already down to 1 view left before I even noticed the change and even then I only noticed it because it was more obvious when viewed in mobile mode on my desktop I probably would not have noticed until it at all until I ran out of views and it asked me for money Since I subscribe to the feedback lists I had been clicking on language data related to some of those comments I d received through those lists but probably would not have clicked on them at all if I d realized that I was using up my free monthly pages by doing so I was just clicking on them out of a slight interest to see for myself what they were commenting on but I might have saved my free pages for my own research if I d realized I was using them up I ll know from now on but there are also many sites that directly link to various pages on Ethnologue It would be nice if the counter at the bottom was a bit more obvious or there was a clear notification at the top of the pages and maybe also a notice sent to the feedback lists or did I miss that somehow so that other users who get there that way are more aware of this change It would be different if it were a brand new site but people are very used to this site being free and the counter in the bottom corner blends in with the other logos etc portions of the site that rarely change so I didn t read them closely Submitted by Jennifer Runner on Thu 2015 12 17 11 21 RE Maybe make it more obvious Hi Jennifer Sorry this snuck up on you like this It has been a major change for all of us and we are all adjusting to the new wrinkles that the subscription process has introduced One important point that your comment brings up Not every page on the website is metered and that may be part of the reason that you didn t immediately notice the page counter When it appears it is pretty obvious bright blue with white text against the white background of the data page And it is deliberately in the lower right oops I mean LEFT corner of the screen so as not to obscure any of the data that you want to look at So for example the home page and the various navigation pages that you need to click on in order to get to a specific country or language are not counted so the remaining free page counter doesn t appear You wouldn t have seen it until you actually accessed a data page In addition while the language and country data pages are counted the Feedback pages aren t So the remaining free page count appears on the language data pages but then disappears when you go to the Feedback tab Keep in mind that you can go back to any data page you have already accessed during the month without using up a free page access So if you want to check if a comment you posted for example has been responded to you should be able to get there without using any additional pages from your monthly allotment And then just to repeat once more most users of the Ethnologue are not likely to encounter the access limitation at all Only users in high income countries are seeing the page counter to begin with and most users of the Ethnologue tend to focus on a single language and so generally don t access more than 7 different pages each month though they may access those few pages multiple times Hope this helps Submitted by M Paul Lewis on Thu 2015 12 17 11 51 and one more thing You mentioned the feedback lists The way it works is that whenever a registered Ethnologue user different from a subscriber decides to follow a specific language country or region they receive a notification when another user posts feedback regarding that language or country or any language or country in a region There is no list as such So short of posting a comment on the Feedback tab for every data entity in the Ethnologue there is no way for us to contact every user directly as you suggest Submitted by M Paul Lewis on Thu 2015 12 17 15 24 Navigation After I log on my only option appears to be clicking on The Languages of the World Neither the pre highlighted VIEW or the icon with 4 horizontal lines stacked vertically trigger any response from the site The latter used to open Browse By for me but no longer What am I missing Thanks John Submitted by John Van Der Decker on Fri 2015 12 18 20 40 Re Navigation John My apologies for not seeing this and responding to you more quickly I ve forwarded your question on to our

    Original URL path: http://www.ethnologue.com/ethnoblog/m-paul-lewis/ethnologue-launches-subscription-service (2016-02-12)
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  • Ghost Languages? Ghostbusters needed! | Ethnologue
    that inclusion The legacy repertoire of identified languages became codified first within the pages of the Ethnologue and more recently with some modifications in the ISO 639 3 standard It serves as the baseline for our statistical analyses and in many ways has been taken by many people to be a given the true and authoritative list of the living and recently extinct languages of the world While that s what we aim for we recognize that given the nature of the early aims and research methodology neither we nor you should just take us at our word The inclusion of a language now in the ISO 639 3 inventory should be based on evidence The second complication is that the simple lack of evidence data about the nature of the language the number of present or former users the location of those users and all the other kinds of information that make an Ethnologue entry complete doesn t necessarily mean that a language isn t there now or wasn t there in the last 60 years our definition of recently extinct Many small language groups live in very remote areas Often they are intermixed with users of other languages and are multilingual in those languages The use of the language may not be visible to the casual or short term observer And even with more extensive observation the domains and times of use may be so limited or so intimate only in the home exclusively among members of the group when no outsiders are present as to go unremarked And then even when somebody may be aware of such a language they may do no more than mention it in passing in a publication or a conference presentation If the language is now extinct there is some utility in making sure that it gets added to the ISO 639 3 inventory as an extinct language This gives the scholarly community a three letter code that can be used to clearly identify the now dead language That may seem like a small thing but it enables those who study languages in a region or in a particular language family to more easily know that they are talking about the same or different linguistic entities And if the language went extinct after 1950 we want to make sure that it is clearly and concisely reported on in the Ethnologue The third complication is that when multiple sources report on the linguistic ecology of a region different sources may use different names for the same languages Sometimes one source identifies different varieties using different names where the ISO 639 3 standard lumps all of those varieties together under a single name Often these different names come from the users of the language itself If those were reported to Ethnologue prior to 2005 when Ethnologue began to use the ISO 639 3 standard chances are they might have been added to the Ethnologue as separate languages Wanting to be comprehensive we included possibly

    Original URL path: http://www.ethnologue.com/ethnoblog/m-paul-lewis/ghost-languages-ghostbusters-needed (2016-02-12)
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  • Migration and Language Contact | Ethnologue
    immigrant languages within a country s borders becomes more important and useful With populations on the move in such large numbers and in so many different directions as they now are we face significant challenges to our ability to accurately provide the relevant data We are redoubling our efforts to get more up to date data but the statistics like the people themselves are on the move Log in or register to post comments Comments Migration Of Mayan Peoples to the United States Dear Paul I am new to this part of Ethnologue I am writing to you with great urgency Though I have looked at various languages over time I am now in need of some guidance for a practical reason I am trying to distinguish the areas where Mam is spoken in Western Guatemala in order to assist legal assistance efforts for immigrants fleeing these states San Marcos Huehuetenango and Quetzaltenango If there is a better way to direct this message to persons associated with that language or Mayan Languages in Guatemala please instruct me I have found ISO 639 3 page where Mam as the language of my inquiry is listed but a few aspects are puzzling towns are mentioned as areas for speakers but I would like to confirm that what is actually meant is municipio Towns can mean a lot of things especially in Latin america so that nomenclature is not very clear for me at least The second question is if there is more data on the towns that make up the five dialects designated A list for each dialect would be very helpful There is one comparison for mutual intelligibility between two of the five dialects on the site Is there any newer information for other sources to look at I have read the Atlas Linguistica de Guatemala Richards 2003 which lists areas at more and at less risk in terms of municipalities but that does not give me the larger picture of how many speak which dialect Also in an older version of Ethnologue there were estimates for numbers of speakers for several Mam dialects and I do not see that there now if it is was changed is it possible to contact those who changed it and ask if they have updated information or was it considered inaccurate I am trying to create a guide to distinguish the major Mam dialects so that better matches between interpreters and legal service providers can be created and then used This is a quite urgent matter given there are over 20 000 indigenous language speaking immigrants detained in the US immigration system in one year by my estimates see Exclusion of Indigenous Language Speaking Immigrants in the US Immigration system a technical review http www amaconsultants org uploads 5638303bb62f9 pdf I appreciate your consideration of my questions Blake Gentry Submitted by Blake Gentry on Fri 2016 01 15 00 17 Mam in Guatemala Hi Blake It probably would be more efficient for us to

    Original URL path: http://www.ethnologue.com/ethnoblog/m-paul-lewis/migration-and-language-contact (2016-02-12)
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