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  • Hindi | Ethnologue
    person number gender and honorificity of subject split ergativity both tense and aspect passives and voice nontonal 28 consonant and 10 vowel phonemes Language Development Fully developed Bible 1818 2000 Language Resources OLAC resources in and about Hindi Writing Braille script Brai Devanagari script Deva primary usage Newar Prachalit Nepal script Qabc no longer in use historic usage Other Comments Hindi Hindustani Urdu could be considered co dialects but have important sociolinguistic differences Hindu Hindi Also spoken in Expand All Collapse All Nepal Language name Hindi Population 77 600 in Nepal 2011 census increasing L2 users 490 000 in Nepal 1991 census Location Central Tarai area Bagmati Janakpur and Narayani zones Kathmandu valley Alternate Names Dakhini Hindi Urdu Hindustani Khariboli Status 3 Wider communication Language Use Home friends religion education mixed use Work All ages Used as L2 by Angika anp Avadhi awa Bantawa bap Bhojpuri bho Byangsi bee Chitwania Tharu the Dangaura Tharu thl Dhimal dhi Helambu Sherpa scp Humla hut Jumli jml Kathariya Tharu tkt Maithili mai Marwari rwr Mugom muk Newar new Rajbanshi rjs Raji rji Rana Tharu thr Raute rau Southern Ghale ghe Language Development Also taught at higher levels of education Taught in primary and secondary schools Writing Braille script Brai Devanagari script Deva primary usage Newar Prachalit Nepal script Qabc no longer in use historic usage Other Comments Hindu Buddhist Christian Muslim View other languages of Nepal Singapore Language name Hindi Population 13 100 in Singapore 2010 census Status 5 Dispersed Writing Braille script Brai Devanagari script Deva primary usage Newar Prachalit Nepal script Qabc no longer in use historic usage View other languages of Singapore South Africa Language name Hindi Population 361 000 in South Africa 2003 Location KwaZulu Natal province Status 5 Dispersed Writing Braille script Brai Devanagari script Deva primary usage

    Original URL path: http://www.ethnologue.com/language/hin (2016-02-13)
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  • Portuguese | Ethnologue
    of urbanization due to civil war led to increased use Status 1 National Statutory national language 2010 Constitution Article 19 1 Language Use An African Bantuïzed form of Portuguese por is slowly making inroads Writing Braille script Brai Latin script Latn primary usage View other languages of Angola Brazil Language name Portuguese Population 187 000 000 in Brazil 1998 Location Widespread Status 1 National Statutory national language 1988 Constitution Article 13 Language Development Literacy rate in L1 71 Writing Braille script Brai Latin script Latn primary usage Other Comments Christian traditional religion View other languages of Brazil Cape Verde Islands Language name Portuguese Population There are very few L1 speakers mostly Portuguese or Brazilian citizens who tend to remain monolingual in Portuguese Location Urban centers Status 1 National Statutory national language 1992 Constitution Article 9 1 Language Use Kabuverdianu kea is beginning to encroach on the domains traditionally reserved for Portuguese Education formal functions Language Development Literacy rate in L1 85 Taught in primary and secondary schools Writing Braille script Brai Latin script Latn primary usage View other languages of Cape Verde Islands China Macao Language name Portuguese Population 2 810 in China Macao 2001 census Status 2 Provincial Statutory provincial working language in Macao 1999 Basic Law Article 9 Writing Braille script Brai Latin script Latn primary usage View other languages of China Macao East Timor Language name Portuguese Population 600 in East Timor 2010 census Alternate Names Português Status 1 National Statutory national language 2002 Constitution Article 13 Language Use Very few fluent users Writing Braille script Brai Latin script Latn primary usage Other Comments Christian View other languages of East Timor France Language name Portuguese Population 750 000 in France 1989 National Geographic Location Scattered Aquitaine region Bordeaux Corsica region Île de France region Paris Midi Pyrénées region Toulouse Nord Pas de Calais region Roubaix near Belgian border Status 3 Wider communication Language Use Also use French fra Language Development Literacy rate in L2 Relatively low Writing Braille script Brai Latin script Latn primary usage View other languages of France Guinea Bissau Language name Portuguese Population 167 000 in Guinea Bissau 2006 Location Bissau region Status 1 National De facto national language Language Use With foreigners written materials higher education Language Development Officially used in schools but mostly poorly spoken Taught in primary and secondary schools Writing Braille script Brai Latin script Latn primary usage View other languages of Guinea Bissau India Language name Portuguese Population 250 000 in India Location Goa State Daman and Diu Dadra and Nagar Haveli Status 5 Dispersed Language Use Used as L2 by Indo Portuguese idb Writing Braille script Brai Latin script Latn primary usage View other languages of India Mozambique Language name Portuguese Population 1 340 000 in Mozambique 2006 L2 users 6 300 000 in Mozambique Status 1 National Statutory national language 2004 Constitution Article 10 Writing Braille script Brai Latin script Latn primary usage View other languages of Mozambique São Tomé e Príncipe Language name Portuguese Population 2

    Original URL path: http://www.ethnologue.com/language/por (2016-02-13)
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  • Russian | Ethnologue
    uig Used as L2 by Korean kor Mandarin Chinese cmn Oroqen orh Uyghur uig Xibe sjo Language Development Literacy rate in L2 96 in any language for Russian nationality 2000 census Writing Braille script Brai Cyrillic script Cyrl primary usage Other Comments Christian View other languages of China Estonia Language name Russian Population 383 000 in Estonia 2011 census Ethnic population 321 000 2011 census L2 users 725 000 in Estonia European Commission 2012 Status 3 Wider communication De facto national working language Language Use Used as L2 by Standard Estonian ekk Writing Braille script Brai Cyrillic script Cyrl primary usage View other languages of Estonia Georgia Language name Russian Population 372 000 in Georgia Status 3 Wider communication De facto national working language Language Use Used as L2 by Assyrian Neo Aramaic aii Svan sva Writing Braille script Brai Cyrillic script Cyrl primary usage View other languages of Georgia Israel Language name Russian Population 750 000 in Israel 1999 H Mutzafi Location Central District Tel Aviv Hefa district Haifa Yerushalayim District Jerusalem Alternate Names Russit Russki Status 5 Dispersed Language Use Also use Hebrew heb Writing Braille script Brai Cyrillic script Cyrl primary usage Other Comments Jewish View other languages of Israel Kazakhstan Language name Russian Population 3 800 000 in Kazakhstan 2009 census L2 users 15 200 000 in Kazakhstan 2001 World Factbook Status 1 National Statutory national language 1995 Constitution Article 7 2 Writing Braille script Brai Cyrillic script Cyrl primary usage View other languages of Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Language name Russian Population 482 000 in Kyrgyzstan 2009 census Ethnic population 420 000 2009 census Status 1 National Statutory national language 2010 Constitution Article 10 2 Writing Braille script Brai Cyrillic script Cyrl primary usage Other Comments Christian View other languages of Kyrgyzstan Latvia Language name Russian Population 862 000 in Latvia L2 users 1 390 000 in Latvia European Commission 2012 Status 3 Wider communication De facto national working language Language Use Used as L2 by Eastern Yiddish ydd Latgalian ltg Writing Braille script Brai Cyrillic script Cyrl primary usage Other Comments Christian Jewish View other languages of Latvia Lithuania Language name Russian Population 344 000 in Lithuania L2 users 2 430 000 in Lithuania European Commission 2012 Status 3 Wider communication Language Use Used as L2 by Lithuanian lit Writing Braille script Brai Cyrillic script Cyrl primary usage Other Comments Christian View other languages of Lithuania Moldova Language name Russian Population 541 000 in Moldova 2004 census Status 3 Wider communication De facto national working language Writing Braille script Brai Cyrillic script Cyrl primary usage View other languages of Moldova Mongolia Language name Russian Population 4 000 in Mongolia Johnstone 1993 Alternate Names Russki Status 3 Wider communication Writing Braille script Brai Cyrillic script Cyrl primary usage Other Comments Mectny Oros permanent Russian residents Widely taught in schools and higher education View other languages of Mongolia Tajikistan Language name Russian Population 40 600 in Tajikistan 2010 census Ethnic population 34 800 2010 census Status 3 Wider

    Original URL path: http://www.ethnologue.com/language/rus (2016-02-13)
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  • Lahnda | Ethnologue
    to cart Browse all products Amazon Recommendations Join the conversation Create a free account to post Feedback about a country or language and be notified when others do the same Browse by Countries Language Names Language Codes Language Families Map Titles Products Current Edition About Ethnologue Abbreviations Bibliography Credits Downloads FAQ Other Products Ethnoblog Language of the Day Print Edition 17th Edition 16th Edition 15th Edition 14th Edition 13th Edition

    Original URL path: http://www.ethnologue.com/language/lah (2016-02-13)
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  • Hindko, Northern | Ethnologue
    Also related to Punjabi pnb Saraiki skr and Pahari Potwari phr which have all been called Greater Punjabi forming part of Lahnda lah Lexical similaritiy 82 92 with Northern Hindko dialects 67 82 with Northern and Southern Hindko hnd varieties A member of macrolanguage Lahnda lah Language Use All domains except education All ages Very positive attitudes The educated also use Urdu urd with varied proficiency Also use Pashto Western Punjabi pnb with low proficiency Used as L2 by Kundal Shahi shd Language Development Literacy rate in L2 Below 20 Pilot multilingual education program in development Poetry Newspapers New media Radio programs Films TV Videos Language Resources OLAC resources in and about Hindko Northern Writing Arabic script Arab Other Comments Muslim Sunni Muslim Shi a Hindko Northern Place in Language Cloud Click to enlarge with explanation Ethnologue Products Languages of Pakistan An Ethnologue Country Report 59 pp 14 95 Add to cart Language Map of Northern Pakistan An Ethnologue Language Map 24 95 Add to cart Browse all products Join the conversation Create a free account to post Feedback about a country or language and be notified when others do the same Browse by Countries Language Names Language Codes Language

    Original URL path: http://www.ethnologue.com/language/hno (2016-02-13)
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  • Pahari-Potwari | Ethnologue
    related varieties with Punjabi pnb Hindko hno hnd and Saraiki skr also called Greater Punjabi Degree of similarity to Western Pahari varieties in India unknown Lexical similarity 76 84 among varieties called Pahari Potwari and some called Hindko in Mansehra Muzzaffarabad and Mirpuri in Jammu A member of macrolanguage Lahnda lah Language Development Radio programs Language Resources OLAC resources in and about Pahari Potwari Writing Arabic script Nastaliq variant Aran Other Comments Muslim Pahari Potwari Also spoken in Expand All Collapse All India Language name Pahari Potwari Population 1 020 000 in India 2000 Location Jammu and Kashmir Kupware district near Pakistan border Alternate Names Mirpur Mirpur Panjabi Mirpur Punjabi Mirpuri Status 6a Vigorous Writing Arabic script Nastaliq variant Aran Other Comments Hindu Sikh View other languages of India Place in Language Cloud Click to enlarge with explanation Ethnologue Products Languages of Pakistan An Ethnologue Country Report 59 pp 14 95 Add to cart Language Map of Northern Pakistan An Ethnologue Language Map 24 95 Add to cart Browse all products Join the conversation Create a free account to post Feedback about a country or language and be notified when others do the same Browse by Countries Language Names Language

    Original URL path: http://www.ethnologue.com/language/phr (2016-02-13)
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  • Punjabi, Western | Ethnologue
    originally called Western Panjabi by Grierson is a label for the dialect continuum between Hindko hno hnd Pahari Potwari phr and Saraiki skr Lahnda varieties are 70 85 lexically similar to Punjabi pan Lexical similarity 70 85 with Punjabi pan A member of macrolanguage Lahnda lah Language Use Educated younger generations living in cities opt to use Urdu urd and English eng and parents also encourage them to use Urdu or English even at home Home community religious settings All ages Positive attitudes Used as L2 by Aer aeq Northern Hindko hno Sansi ssi Southern Hindko hnd Language Development Newspapers Radio programs Films TV Videos Grammar NT 1819 2000 Language Resources OLAC resources in and about Punjabi Western Writing Arabic script Arab Khojki script Khoj Lahnda Landa script Qaaj no longer in use Other Comments Muslim Sunni Christian Punjabi Western Also spoken in Expand All Collapse All India Language name Punjabi Western Population 1 910 000 in India 2007 Location Jammu and Kashmir Jammu Samba and Kathua districts Punjab Gurdaspur district possibly Delhi Haryana Alternate Names Hindki Lahanda Lahnda Lahndi Western Panjabi Status 5 Developing Writing Arabic script Arab Khojki script Khoj Lahnda Landa script Qaaj no longer in use Other Comments Muslim Christian View other languages of India Place in Language Cloud Click to enlarge with explanation Ethnologue Products Languages of Pakistan An Ethnologue Country Report 59 pp 14 95 Add to cart Language Map of Southern Pakistan An Ethnologue Language Map 24 95 Add to cart Browse all products Amazon Recommendations Join the conversation Create a free account to post Feedback about a country or language and be notified when others do the same Browse by Countries Language Names Language Codes Language Families Map Titles Products Current Edition About Ethnologue Abbreviations Bibliography Credits Downloads FAQ Other Products Ethnoblog

    Original URL path: http://www.ethnologue.com/language/pnb (2016-02-13)
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  • Saraiki | Ethnologue
    Jhangvi Mianvali Multani Khatki Riasati Shahpuri Sindhi Saraiki Dialects blend together into Punjabi east and Sindhi snd south Until recently it was considered a dialect of Panjabi 80 intelligibility of Dogri dgo Lexical similarity 85 with Sindhi snd 68 with Dhatki mki Od odk and Sansi ssi A member of macrolanguage Lahnda lah Language Use All ages Also use Urdu urd Used as L2 by Sansi ssi Language Development Literacy rate in L1 Below 1 Literacy rate in L2 5 15 Radio programs TV Dictionary Grammar NT 1819 Language Resources OLAC resources in and about Saraiki Writing Arabic script Arab primary usage Devanagari script Deva no longer in use Gurmukhi script Guru no longer in use Khojki script Khoj Other Comments Muslim Hindu Saraiki Also spoken in Expand All Collapse All India Language name Saraiki Population 68 000 in India 2001 Location Punjab Rajasthan Delhi Gujarat Maharashtra Andhra Pradesh Madhya Pradesh Uttar Pradesh Alternate Names Bahawalpuri Multani Mutani Reasati Riasati Seraiki Siraiki Dialects Jafri Riasati Bahawalpuri Bhawalpuri Reasati Siraiki Hindki Thali Status 5 Developing Language Use Also use Marathi mar Urdu urd Language Development Literacy rate in L1 Below 1 Literacy rate in L2 15 Urdu urd Marathi mar Writing Arabic script Arab primary usage Devanagari script Deva no longer in use Gurmukhi script Guru no longer in use Khojki script Khoj Other Comments A new literary language based on south Lahnda dialects especially Multani and Bahawalpuri Hindu Sikh View other languages of India Place in Language Cloud Click to enlarge with explanation Ethnologue Products Languages of Pakistan An Ethnologue Country Report 59 pp 14 95 Add to cart Language Map of Southern Pakistan An Ethnologue Language Map 24 95 Add to cart Browse all products Join the conversation Create a free account to post Feedback about a country or

    Original URL path: http://www.ethnologue.com/language/skr (2016-02-13)
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