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  • Endangered Languages | Ethnologue
    endangerment recognize the implications of the loss of linguistic diversity both for the linguistic and social environment generally and for the academic community which is devoted to the study of language as a human phenomenon Evaluating language endangerment The best way to identify the level of vitality of a language has not always been clear However a scholarly consensus that can be applied worldwide is developing and a global evaluation of the state of language vitality is becoming increasingly possible Sociolinguists and linguistic anthropologists seek to identify trends in language use through the description of some direct measures of language vitality such as changes in the number of speakers or in the use of the language in certain domains or functions Less directly an increase in bilingualism both in the number of bilinguals and in their proficiency levels is often associated with these trends though a high level of bilingualism is not in itself a sufficient condition for language shift or death In addition there are numerous economic political and social factors that affect a community s self perception and motivations Ethnologue reports data that are indicators of the two major dimensions of language use users and functions When data are available we report the following factors which may contribute to the assessment of language endangerment The speaker population The ethnic population the number of those who connect their ethnic identity with the language whether or not they speak the language The stability of and trends in that population size Residency and migration patterns of speakers The use of second languages The use of the language by others as a second language Language attitudes within the community The age range of the speakers The domains of use of the language Official recognition of languages within the nation or region Means of transmission whether children are learning the language at home or being taught the language in schools Non linguistic factors such as economic opportunity or the lack thereof Such factors interact within a society in dynamic ways that are not entirely predictable but which do follow recognizable patterns and trends The general scholarly consensus however is that the key factor in gauging the relative safety of an endangered language is the degree to which intergenerational transmission of the language remains intact Language endangerment and the EGIDS Because of the complexity of the interrelated factors it is helpful to categorize the vitality of a language using a summary label Various schemas have been proposed each with a particular focus For various reasons none of these are entirely adequate for a comprehensive global assessment of the state of the world s languages The Expanded Graded Intergenerational Disruption Scale or EGIDS Lewis and Simons 2010 was developed specifically to fill this gap We report a vitality estimate for every identified language in each country where that language is spoken This is done by reporting the estimated EGIDS level in each language entry under the label Status see Language Status for the definitions of

    Original URL path: https://www.ethnologue.com/endangered-languages (2016-02-13)
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  • Summary by world area | Ethnologue
    its primary country This has the effect of counting the languages by their area of origin The Total column gives the total number of people who use those languages as their first language regardless of where in the world they may live Note for instance that the population given in the row for Europe is nearly twice the actual population of Europe This is because it is a count of speakers of European languages some of which are now used as a first language in other parts of the world due to the colonial expansion of the last few centuries Since it is a count of first language speakers any given person should be counted only once As a result the total at the bottom of the column approximates the total world population Note however that the total is somewhat less than the actual world population at present This is because the Ethnologue lacks population estimates for about 4 of the languages and because it does not automatically extrapolate population estimates to the current year but waits for reports from reliable sources The Percent columns give the share of the count for that area as a percentage of the total number listed at the bottom of the Count column The Mean column gives the average number of speakers per language while the Median column gives the middle value in the distribution of language populations that is half of the languages have more speakers than that number and half have that number or fewer Table 1 Distribution of world languages by area of origin Area Living languages Number of speakers Count Percent Total Percent Mean Median Africa 2 138 30 1 815 252 580 13 0 381 316 27 500 Americas 1 064 15 0 51 527 759 0 8 48

    Original URL path: https://www.ethnologue.com/statistics (2016-02-13)
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  • About the Ethnologue | Ethnologue
    language size language status language family and country extensive bibliography of references cited over 200 color language maps About the 18th edition Over 12 000 updates have been made to the Ethnologue database since the 17th edition was released one year ago While we are always processing additional research and any feedback received from users every year we also give proactive attention to some part of the data In this edition we have focused on soliciting review of information on the languages of Africa As a result of these efforts the descriptions of 4 447 languages contain at least one update Because languages are dynamic variable and constantly changing the total number of living languages in the world cannot be known precisely Therefore that number changes as knowledge of the world s languages improves This edition lists a total of 7 102 living languages worldwide a net decrease of 4 living languages since the 17th edition of Ethnologue was published one year ago This is the result of updating Ethnologue to align with the 2014 series of changes to the ISO 639 3 inventory of languages That standard removed 17 languages listed as living in the previous edition 11 being merged with other languages and 6 being removed because they were duplicates or could not be substantiated as ever having been a language Conversely 13 languages are newly listed as living 7 being added by the standard as not having been previously identified and 6 being shifted within Ethnologue out of the status of extinct or unattested In addition to living languages Ethnologue also contains data on languages which have gone out of use since the first appearance of the publication over 60 years ago This edition lists 367 such recently extinct languages Ancient classical and long extinct languages are

    Original URL path: https://www.ethnologue.com/about (2016-02-13)
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  • More use of the Ethnologue data... | Ethnologue
    linguistic diversity The authors comment that the dataset available through the WLMS is remarkable both in its range and the detail it contains p 11 They also say some nice things about the Ethnologue it still remains the best source of data on global languages p 10 That s good for us to hear and we are working hard to maintain that high standard The volume is replete with graphs maps and tables showing the intersection of these datasets And as is common with scientific studies the results aren t entirely conclusive but they are highly supportive of the general hypothesis that linguistic and biological diversity are linked What they found was remarkable concordance between biological and linguistic diversity in regions of high biodiversity p x In addition many of the languages spoken in those high biodiversity regions like the species that inhabit them are unique to those regions Many of those languages are spoken by small numbers of people making them particularly vulnerable There are some exceptions however so we can t just flatly assert that high levels of biodiversity co occur with high levels of linguistic diversity in every case There s a lot to look at and learn from this report We re glad that the Ethnologue could contribute to the analysis Log in or register to post comments Comments Language extinction I am really confused Ethnologue claims the extinction rate of languages is high but it also indicates that many languages some of which were listed as extinct in previous editions as extinct are not extinct but merely dormant or being revived How can the rate of language extinction be so high if so many are no longer extinct The trend according to Ethnologue seems to be more languages are being saved not vanishing Submitted by

    Original URL path: https://www.ethnologue.com/comment/761 (2016-02-13)
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  • Ethnoblog | Ethnologue
    Central is that we aim to provide language information that is Clear Concise and Comprehensive and if you need another alliterative item Correct of course Those goals don t always align easily Sometimes by being concise we lose clarity Read more 1 Oct Migration and Language Contact Almost daily now we see headlines about migrants who are fleeing the violence in Syria and who are making their way into Europe and elsewhere with the hope that they might find safety in a better place Read more 1 Sep What I did on my summer vacation I ve been away from Ethnologue Central for several weeks now not exactly on holiday but certainly having a wonderfully productive time Most of this extended trip has involved significant events related to the Ethnologue Read more 1 Aug The books are here Last month I talked about the whiz bang process we use to transform the data we have locked away in our database into the printed volumes that you can order from your favorite bookseller Read more 1 Jul Tom Swift and His Electronic Book Machine Sometime in the next few weeks the Ethnologue 18th edition print volumes should become available through your preferred bookseller Read more 1 Jun Language extinction it s real it s serious and it s hard but getting easier to assess In response to last month s Ethnoblog post a reader commented that the topic of language extinction and the way Ethnologue reports on it is confusing Read more 1 May More use of the Ethnologue data There is a growing body of evidence that linguistic diversity and biological diversity are linked A recent publication from Conservation International examines some of that evidence The volume authored by L J Read more Pages 1 2 3 4 next last

    Original URL path: https://www.ethnologue.com/ethnoblog (2016-02-13)
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  • Countries Category | Ethnologue
    Tracking Multilingualism The Ethnologue continues to be widely used as a source by various media outlets and of course we re always happy to see the data being used Read more 31 Oct Functions of Languages in Countries In an earlier post I mentioned a new category of information Status in which we provide a measure of the state of endangerment or development of each language using the Read more The Ethnoblog is a place where the Ethnologue Editor and others talk about language in general items in the news regarding language and languages and developments products and projects being worked on by the Ethnologue staff and others Blog Categories Countries 7 Development 12 Endangerment 18 Languages 22 Products 36 Publishing 25 Uncategorized 1 Recent Posts Looking back and looking ahead Entering a new year together Ethnologue launches subscription service Ghost Languages Ghostbusters needed Migration and Language Contact more Browse by Countries Language Names Language Codes Language Families Map Titles Products Current Edition About Ethnologue Abbreviations Bibliography Credits Downloads FAQ Other Products Ethnoblog Language of the Day Print Edition 17th Edition 16th Edition 15th Edition 14th Edition 13th Edition Related Sites SIL org ScriptSource ISO 639 3 Contact SIL International

    Original URL path: https://www.ethnologue.com/ethnoblog/Countries (2016-02-13)
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  • Development Category | Ethnologue
    productive time Most of this extended trip has involved significant events related to the Ethnologue Read more 1 Feb What we are working on here at Ethnologue Central After the holiday break Ethnologue Central has burst into a flurry of activity Here are some of the things that we are working on Read more 1 Aug Sustainable Language Use In the 16th edition the Ethnologue added an evaluation of the vitality status of each language using the EGIDS our own scale I wrote about that at length here last year Read more 1 May Evaluating Endangerment and Development In the first posting to this blog I mentioned that one of the new features of this edition of the Ethnologue 17th is the addition of a status category for each language Read more The Ethnoblog is a place where the Ethnologue Editor and others talk about language in general items in the news regarding language and languages and developments products and projects being worked on by the Ethnologue staff and others Blog Categories Countries 7 Development 12 Endangerment 18 Languages 22 Products 36 Publishing 25 Uncategorized 1 Recent Posts Looking back and looking ahead Entering a new year together Ethnologue launches

    Original URL path: https://www.ethnologue.com/ethnoblog/Development (2016-02-13)
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  • Endangerment Category | Ethnologue
    language extinction and the way Ethnologue reports on it is confusing Read more 1 May More use of the Ethnologue data There is a growing body of evidence that linguistic diversity and biological diversity are linked A recent publication from Conservation International examines some of that evidence The volume authored by L J Read more 1 Apr Web Surfing in every language and the Ethnologue We ve mentioned before how some scholars are making use of the Ethnologue but a major report on the state of global internet connectivity from Internet org a consortium with Facebook at the lead is one of the first to make extensive u Read more 1 Aug Sustainable Language Use In the 16th edition the Ethnologue added an evaluation of the vitality status of each language using the EGIDS our own scale I wrote about that at length here last year Read more 1 Dec EuLaViBar Another Way to Evaluate Vitality I ve talked quite a bit here about the EGIDS the scale we ve developed for the Ethnologue that provides us with a way to evaluate the status of a language s vitality The EGIDS was designed to give us a shorthand way to categorize something that is extremely complex We don t conside Read more 1 May Evaluating Endangerment and Development In the first posting to this blog I mentioned that one of the new features of this edition of the Ethnologue 17th is the addition of a status category for each language Read more The Ethnoblog is a place where the Ethnologue Editor and others talk about language in general items in the news regarding language and languages and developments products and projects being worked on by the Ethnologue staff and others Blog Categories Countries 7 Development 12 Endangerment 18 Languages 22

    Original URL path: https://www.ethnologue.com/ethnoblog/Endangerment (2016-02-13)
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