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  • neurolinguistic programming - Everything2.com
    has now been expanded to include such diverse topics as sales persuasion and even seduction ladies beware NLP Presupposition s The ability to change the process by which we experience reality is more often valuable than changing the content of our experience of reality The meaning of the communication is the response you get All distinctions human beings are able to make concerning our environment and our behavior can be usefully represented through the visual auditory kinesthetic olfactory and gustatory senses The resources an individual needs in order to effect a change are already within them The map is not the territory The positive worth of the individual is held constant while the value and appropriateness of internal and or external behavior is questioned There is a positive intention motivating every behavior and a context in which every behavior has value Feedback vs Failure All results and behaviors are achievements whether they are desired outcomes for a given task context or not NLP Topics Ambiguity phonetic Lexical Semantic Syntactic Punctuation ambiguity Pacing Thought Loop Nominalization Reframing Rapport Anchor ing classical conditioning operant conditioning NLP creativity strategy Eye accessing cues Reality bubble Calibration TOTE Model Synesthesia 4 tuple the is of identity uptime to be continued I like it 1 C idea by ponder Mon Apr 02 2007 at 12 55 40 This is a node your homework writeup I am currently studying to be an NLP practitioner Update 21 04 2007 I ve now qualified as an NLP Practitioner and also as a hypnotherapist What is NLP Neuro Our nervous system through which we gather and process information from our five senses See Visual Hear Auditory Touch Kinaesthetic Smell Olfactory Taste Gustatory Linguistic Language and non verbal systems through which our internal representation s are coded ordered and given meaning Programming The pattern s programme s and strategies that we run in our neurology to achieve our specific and desired outcome s This approach is combined with an attitude of wanton curiosity experimentation and confidence The methodology of NLP is to use modelling technique s of physiology language filter pattern s and strategies The three original people who were modelled for the basis of NLP theory were Virginia Satir family therapy Milton H Erickson hypnosis and Fritz Perls gestalt therapy The NLP Communication Model Meaning Filters I R Delete EXTERNAL Focus Distort EVENT Generalise State Beliefs Values Memories Body Response Behaviour Results How this works is that sensory data arrives in the form of External Event s There are over two million of these external events happening all the time However the conscious mind is only aware of and tracking seven plus or minus two items External events reach the conscious mind by passing through filters The first of these is deletion Think of this as a tuned circuit in a radio receiver which picks out one radio station from the mass of noise coming in on the aerial The next filter is distortion this can be analagous to another

    Original URL path: http://everything2.com/title/Neurolinguistic+Programming (2016-02-12)
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  • Ivan Pavlov - Everything2.com
    prize to be given to either a physiologist or to a Russian However his work has had a profound influence within psychology and has earned him the status of one of the founders of psychology He was a powerful bridge between the study of the brain and the study of behavior Pavlov s contribution to psychology came after a long and distinguished career studying digestion it was only at the age of 50 that Pavlov was able to develop the notion of the conditional reflex The Russian revolution of 1917 brought a materialist doctrine into the ascendancy in Russian thinking and Pavlov s work was at first regarded as entirely appropriate to this Lenin and the Soviet regime extended favors to his laboratory However Pavlov regarded the new system with some suspicion and Soviet ideology was not entirely happy with some of the more radical features of Pavlov s science In the West Pavlov s ideas formed a crucial basis for Watson s behaviorist revolution Pavlov died in 1936 I like it higher order conditioning Pavlov s cat B F Skinner Bloody Sunday Serial Experiments Lain respondent conditioning Using Pavlovian Theory to classically condition inanimate objects Mental illness Nobel Prize Psychology talent and brain plasticity humanzee orientation reaction TOTE Model The Three Brain Phases Conditioned Pavlovian Fyodor Dostoyevsky dog You re My Home What s your sign Dating and the Semantic Web Niels Ryberg Finsen Everything Quests The Nobel Prize winners Log in or register to write something here or to contact authors Sign in Login Password remember me Lost password Sign up Need help accounthelp everything2 com Recommended Reading About Everything2 User Picks 2016 New Hampshire Democratic Primary Thomas Atkins transfinite induction September 11 2002 Not All Who Are Lost Wandered Super bowl babies Editor Picks The right way

    Original URL path: http://everything2.com/title/Ivan+Pavlov (2016-02-12)
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  • classical conditioning - Everything2.com
    to note that Pavlov s work was not intentionally a study into animal behaviour but on the digestive system Subsequently classical conditioning is also known as Pavlovian conditioning The concept of using classical conditioning to control the masses as exhibited in anti government anti communist books such as Brave New World where citizens are conditioned to enjoy work ing and fear the outdoors See also weird experiences with self classical conditioning I like it 1 C idea by OneDragons Wed Jun 05 2002 at 22 51 38 Pavlov s work with his dogs was a pivotal study in to psychology with conclusions that can still be applied to today s world However what is not often recognised is the way in which the study was conducted The key to these series of experiments is the measurable quality of saliva production the more accurately you can do this the more representative your end data will be So how do you do this Do you try to mop up saliva with a cloth unfortunately this would add a series of new problems so the simple solution is to pipe it straight out This is exactly what Pavlov did and this is the not widely known part he drilled holes in the rear part of the dogs mouth floor just inside of the lower jaw Tubes would then be fixed to the dog with the end actually resting under the dogs tongue The saliva would then simply be siphoned of and collected in jars This raises an interesting ethical discussion How far should scientists be allowed to go in the cause of science These experiments would obviously not happen today as it would be seen as cruel and barbaric but the positive results from the work is clear to all There should be a balance struck between science and the people i e commonly accepted ethics The problem is the boundaries of both sides keep changing How will the future shape this balance I like it idea by bernstbj Wed Aug 07 2002 at 12 08 33 I have personal first hand experience with classical conditioning I used to live in an apartment above a trendy coffee house at the university that I attended The place was long and narrow and my roomate and I set up the front of the apartment with couches and television The TV that we had was one of those old public school types that had more connectors on the back than I knew existed and had obviously been bolted to the top of a rolling cart at some point this was even more obvious when I noticed the half torn sticker that warned children not to climb on the cart lest they be crushed by a heavy object The source of this monster weighed in at over 100 pounds was an old roomate s mother who worked for a public school in Ohio Regardless being the poor college student that I was having a 25 television for

    Original URL path: http://everything2.com/title/classical+conditioning (2016-02-12)
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  • operant conditioning - Everything2.com
    Law of Effect B F Skinner liked the general idea and because of his work operant conditioning is largely associated with his name today But Skinner was a Behaviorist and so dropped all talk of intentions and desires on the part of the animal He focused on the operant which he defined as an observable voluntary behavior that an organism emits to operate have an effect on the environment The Skinner Box is a common apparatus used to experiment with operant conditioning Related ideas Reinforcement which makes a response more common Reinforcers the things that reinforce a response Conditioned reinforcers A neutral reinforcer that works because it has been paired by way of classical conditioning with a primary reinforcer Reinforcement contingency a consistent relationship of action consequence Partial reinforcement the desired response doesn t happen every time Partial reinforcement effect extinction is delayed because the subject is used to partial reinforcement Intermittent reinforcement the number of times reinforcement takes place has been predetermined but reinforcement events are randomized Positive reinforcement Giving a good thing increases behavior Negative reinforcement Taking away a bad thing increases behavior Punishment Positive punishment Giving a bad thing decreases behavior Negative punishment Taking away a good thing decreases behavior Extinction The desired response doesn t happen decreases behavior The Premack Principle A more preferred activity can be used to reinforce a less preferred one Shaping Approaching the desired behavior by reinforcing successive small steps approaching that behavior Autoshaping Shaping without formal training by the experimenter I like it 1 C Behavior modification classical conditioning If it s natural why must it be learned B F Skinner Operant conditioning and E2 voting Premack principle Skinner box Sauce béarnaise syndrome The Reward Path negative reinforcement autoshaping partial reinforcement You want to reassure her but you don t know

    Original URL path: http://everything2.com/title/operant+conditioning (2016-02-12)
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  • Psychology - Everything2.com
    the behaviorist explanation of language acquisition in children The emerging field of computer science also provided an information processing analogy that convinced many researchers that it was possible to study the mind and not just behavior This gave rise to the field of Cognitive Psychology the study of the mind using the scientific method There are two general approaches to this problem structuralism and functionalism Structuralists believe the mind can be understood by reductionism ie to break down cognition into its component parts Functionalists look at the function of cognitive processes and generalized cognitive patterns Schools Approaches of psychology There are numerous schools of psychology Here are a few broad distinctions Clinical psychology This school of psychology is mainly concerned with the application of psychology to individuals with psychological problems There are many approaches to this and the most effective have been those relying on behaviorist and cognitive methods Several less effective or unproven though interesting schools follow Psychoanalysis Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung were major contributors to this school which looks to traumatic events in childhood as the causes of psychological problems The belief is that if you can understand why you are screwed up then you won t be screwed up anymore Neurolinguistic programming Started in the 1970 s by Richard Bandler and John Grinder this model primarily relies on using the existing models of cognitive and behavioral psychology and applying those principles to the study of particularly effective therapists The idea is that if a particular person can do something particularly well you should find out how they do it both cognitively and behaviorally and teach it to other people Humanistic Psychology This school emphasises the development of individuals over the use of specific behavioral or cognitive techniques See Carl Rogers Abraham Maslow Behaviorism or Behavioral Psychology Studies primarily directly observable behavior Major contributors to this school are B F Skinner and Ivan Pavlov Major findings are summarized here Classical conditioning Pavlovian conditioning Conditioned stimulus Unconditioned stimulus Conditioned response Unconditioned response Vicarious classical conditioning Operant conditioning Positive reinforcement Negative reinforcement Positive punishment Negative punishment Vicarious operant conditioning Cognitive Psychology studies the mental processes that occur between sensation and behavior Major themes here are perception memory problem solving language structure of knowledge etc Cognitive Neuroscience and Behavioral Neuroscience These are concerned with finding the parts of the brain responsible for various cognitive and behavioral abilities Evolutionary Psychology This is the study of how various cognitive and behavioral abilities were gained during the course of evolution Social Psychology Concerned with studying the psychological processes that occur in social situations such as persuasion conformity social dillemas communication relationships etc There are numerous other specialties as well Sports psychology Experimental psychology Educational psychology Biopsychology Psychobiology Neuropsychology Developmental psychology Cross cultural psychology Community psychology Analytic psychology Abnormal psychology Engineering psychology Human factors psychology Human Computer interaction Ecology psychology Positive psychology Industrial Organizational Psychology Psychology of Religion Gestalt psychology Psycholinguistics Psychology of language Hypnotherapy and hypnosis Clinical psychology et al Some notable contributors

    Original URL path: http://everything2.com/title/psychology (2016-02-12)
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  • Advertising - Everything2.com
    are newspapers television and radio Advertising is often done through an agency there are many advantages of this such as the ability to fire your agency at any time and use it as a scapegoat if things go wrong Why advertise There are numerous reasons The most common two are related to branding more specifically brand loyalty and brand awareness Brand awareness or product awareness is a neccesary precondition to the sale of many products A brand like McDonalds and the Golden Arches has 95 brand awareness in the United Kingdom And when people know about your product what it is where they can get it and how much it costs they are more likely to buy it Many companies that are involved in selling their services to other businesses actually advertise to consumers to increase awareness of their name so that other companies will be more likely to employ them A case in point is the IT security firm Integralis which advertises itself to consumers as The best kept secret in IT Brand loyalty is a serious competitive advantage When people are loyal to a brand they are willing to pay a little more for it and carry on buying it for a prolonged period In technical terms the product is said to have a lower price elasticity of demand this means that the relationship between the increase in price and decrease in demand for the product are not proportional Advertising builds brand loyalty by helping create a certain image for the brand For instance the image of Clarks the shoeshop is sensible and pragmatic and this image is strengthened through advertising Mothers who want sensible shoes for their children are encouraged to shop there for this reason Moving away from branding another more direct effect of successful advertising is to simply increase demand for a product On a graph of supply and demand the demand curve moves to the right more people want the product at a higher price and the supplier wants to supply more because of this A useful way to calculate the effectiveness of an advertising campaign intended to increase demand is with the formula change in quantity demanded change in advertising expense By increasing sales in this manner a company also helps approach its most efficient level of production the point at which its average costs are as low as they can get Increased sales lead to benefits such as economies of scale I like it idea by generosity Fri Nov 15 2002 at 2 59 42 I ve noticed significant differences in the advertisements directed towards women and men There are millions and millions of ads directed towards women telling them that they are inadequate until they buy certain products Cosmetic advertisers must convince women that they are ugly in order to sell their goods We re bombarded by these ads constantly on TV Radio print the web everywhere from birth On the other hand ads directed towards men are more along the lines of how much more adequate they will be if they buy this pickup truck SUV tool or that gadget There s no cosmetics industry for men so no reason for advertisers to convince men that they are ugly horrible beings In a different vein I noticed advertising on my bananas the other day Wow any surface is fair game I like it idea by a7thson Sat Dec 14 2002 at 3 03 54 Advertising is the nonpersonal communication of information usually paid for and usually persuasive in nature about products services or ideas by identified sponsors through the various media 1 As a noder above commented it s estimated that the average American is exposed to 15 16 thousand advertisements a day These insidious little memes infect our daily lives unconsciously creating unrealistic images encouraging us to be dissatisfied with ourselves evoking emotionality and forcing us to hum stupid little tunes or unknowingly recite catch phrases in our normal conversation Advertising and Consumer Psychology Essentially all successful advertising creates a perceived need where none previously existed also see marketing A great deal of effective advertising is based on eliciting unconscious impulse responses or imparting information to the subconscious through techniques such as slogans catch phrase s name recognition jingles word association s distinct logos and brand identity and the ever effective presence of attractive actors and sexual suggestions all working to essentially bypass the rational judgmental faculty of the mind The alternative is to attempt to get the mind s attention through an appeal to reason a demonstration of product benefits or testimonial s or by rhetoric and emotional appeal Advertising often relies on cultural norms stereotypes and caricatures to simplify the customers identification of a target market and to help him determine very quickly whether he is included in that market Less benevolent tactics also exist They include showing powerful emotional images with little relation to the product literal use of subliminal messages buzzwords fear and scare tactics do you want to be this fat do you want these children to starve to death celebrity endorsement by stars with strong referent power deliberate appeal to prejudice d or bigot ed reactions i e homosexuals deserve AIDS God hates abortions and overtly sexual messages or images unconnected in any way to the product or service being advertised Many of these tactics are also political devices Advertising and Ethics It s important to note that some degree of advertising is necessary to human beings in any case where resistance to an idea or contentment with the status quo exists It has to do with the way our mind works Being basically survival oriented the psyche tends to be homeostatic and will ignore the message that is being communicated unless it elicits a definite shock You need to get the attention of the person to overcome mental inertia whether you are attempting to teach them something new introduce them to a new technology or trying to sell them a product Advertising

    Original URL path: http://everything2.com/title/advertising (2016-02-12)
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  • televangelist - Everything2.com
    its famou name practitioner there are in fact many cool folks on the tube like Charles Stanley and George Rutler who d much rather enlighten than fleece I like it Benny Hinn The single greatest cause of atheism Robert Tilton Jerry Falwell Jimmy Swaggart Love is suicide Mall rat If it ain t King James it ain t the Bible Focus on the Family Interview with God Pat Robertson Artie Plugg Jesus He Knows Me The Lord is my shepherd I shall drive like crap The Pardoner s Tale Why the rich get richer and the poor get poorer Know Thy Televangelists Ski piss how to breathe Personal Jesus Trinity Broadcasting Network Jesus cash George Clooney Log in or register to write something here or to contact authors Sign in Login Password remember me Lost password Sign up Need help accounthelp everything2 com Recommended Reading About Everything2 User Picks 2016 New Hampshire Democratic Primary Thomas Atkins transfinite induction September 11 2002 Not All Who Are Lost Wandered Super bowl babies Editor Picks The right way to take a bath Shinkansen Types Hunter S Thompson spoon William Faulkner credibility is the only real currency New Writeups Eternal September idea by Tem42

    Original URL path: http://everything2.com/title/televangelist (2016-02-12)
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  • Findings: - Everything2.com
    the apocalyptic pagan cult Conservative leaders misappropriate Christian values Just as it could not imprison itself with laws impoverish itself with money or misguide itself with leaders so it would not misrepresent itself with signs The Cult of Ray Leaders of the New School band leader Doomsday Cult Satanic cult The Shadow of the Leader Falcon Leader user Of Gods and Men The Cult of Dionysus Rogue Leader Rogue Squadron II I am a stranger I come in peace Take me to your leader and there will be a massive reward for you in eternity The Witch Cult in Western Europe weak leader cult of personality The Cult of Planet Data Cult World Leader Pretend Deputy Leader of the Labour Party cult of responsibility Of Gods and Men The Orphic Cult The Cult of Mediocrity La Leche League Leader cargo cult programming embryo creation cult member Fearless Leader SMPTE leader Cult of Tetris The cult of Apollo loss leader Leader of the Conservative Party cult of authenticity The Cult of Done Manifesto Spiritual Leaders of Bulgaria Milk Cult Academy Leader Ring leader user Blue Öyster Cult The Cult of Mao The Cult of the Amateur How Today s Internet is Killing Our Culture Union Leader Leader of the Liberal Party The cult of relics Leading a UK political party differences between Labour and Conservatives That time I was almost killed by scary cult children The Cult of Aesculapius Squadron Leader Seven Leader Cult of the Dead Cow cult fodder Banana Anna Boys and the Cult of Awesome Follow the Leader Leader of the Opposition Cargo cult cult of orthogonality The Cult of the Collective Unconscious Everything Quests Leaders of the World Painful Cults Cult of Aesculapius Black Emulsion Leader choir leader Advanced Bonewits Cult Danger Evaluation Frame Philosophus Stone and

    Original URL path: http://everything2.com/title/cult+leader (2016-02-12)
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