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  • I Make Projects - A Quickstart Tutorial for Starting with AVR Microcontrollers
    the development process is that of getting the compiled hex file onto the actual AVR chip so it can run in the real world not just in the simulator This is done with the AVRISP mkII through AVR Studio In the real world the two available Port B pins have LEDs on them so once they are set to HIGH logical 1s the LEDs will light up Make sure the programmer hardware is connected and powered 1 Ensure your AVRISP mkII is plugged in via USB to your workstation You should have a green light on the AVRISP nearest the USB connector 2 Connect the ISP cable from the programmer to our 6 pin header that we breadboarded up as per earlier directions The light by the ISP cable will be RED indicating no power on target circuit 3 Turn on power to your breadboard the AVRISP mkII s light beside the ISP cable should turn GREEN This is because the chip must have power before it can be programmed The AVRISP mkII itself is powered from USB but it doesn t power the your circuit Note If this doesn t work for you consult the documentation for the AVRISP to troubleshoot the connection The colors of the LEDs on the programmer should tell you what is wrong Configure AVR Studio to use the programmer hardware AVR Studio integrates with the AVRISP mkII programmer so there is no need to run a separate programming program to burn our hex file into the chip So now we select the AVRISP mkII as the programmer and inform it of where our hex file is in the context of this project 1 Click the CON button on the menu bar it looks like a little chip with CON in it to connect to the programmer A selection dialog will appear Select AVRISP mkII as the Platform and USB as the choice for the Port it should be the only option for the mkII This allows us to set up the programmer Once we do this once we can skip the setup step by clicking the AVR button next to CON instead 2 Click CONNECT You will see a window with things like LockBits Fuses etc You will someday want to mess with these settings but for now just ignore them and go to the PROGRAM tab All we re going to do here is tell it where to find our hex file Fill out the Input HEX File by clicking the browse button and selecting the MyFirstProject hex file it should be in the project folder 3 Change the ISP Frequency By default the ATTINY45 is set use to internal oscillator for its clock This is what we want but since the default ISP speed generates an error as a result go to MAIN tab and change the speed to 6 48kHz then click WRITE and exit The error message you ll get if the ISP frequency is wrong is pretty clear 4 Program the part Now you can go back to the PROGRAM tab and click PROGRAM The light nearest the ISP cable on the AVRISP mkII should go orange while programming is in progress Look at the output window near the bottom the programming should be successful 5 The program auto runs once the programming is done Look over at the ATTINY45 and you will see the two LEDs are lit If all you needed your microcontroller to do was make those two pins go HIGH after a RESET you could take that ATTINY45 off the breadboard and put it into your project right now But let s change the program a little to demonstrate a delay Instead of the LEDs turning on immediately after a RESET i e after the part is programmed we will have it wait a short time first giving us time to look over and see the LEDs turn on Example of a Delay 1 Change the program to read include avr io h include util delay h int main void Set Port B pins as all outputs DDRB 0xff Use this function from delay h to delay for 4 seconds delay ms 4000 Set all of Port B pins as HIGH PORTB 0xff return 1 2 Save and BUILD F7 or BUILD BUILD Whenever you change the program remember to re build it before programming it into your AVR NOTE Feel free to come back to this part later if your brain is already feeling full so far but since it is never a bad time to demonstrate the correct way to do things here is a quick note about something you will probably see at this point You may see this Warning F CPU not defined for lt util delay h gt If so this is because the compiler needs to know what the clock speed of the microcontroller will be so it can make the appropriate delay Without it the code we just wrote will delay but not necessarily for the intended 4 seconds Fix this by right clicking on the project name in the left pane of AVR Studio and select Edit Configuration Options Enter 1000000 one million for the frequency in Hz This will match the 1 MHz default clock speed of the ATTINY45 and will make the warning go away ensuring your delay does in fact delay for the intended amount of time 3 Click the AVR button that looks like a little chip on the menu bar it s beside the CON button we used earlier Since we already connected to the AVRISP mkII programmer earlier we don t need to do it again and you can just use the AVR button instead of CON again 4 Program the code into the ATTINY45 with the PROGRAM button and look over to your AVR Once the programming is done the LEDs will light after a few seconds delay You have implemented a delay Setting Specific PORTB Bits and Adding a

    Original URL path: http://imakeprojects.com/Projects/avr-tutorial/ (2016-02-17)
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  • I Make Projects - How To Make a Bloody Valentine Heart
    on the left Now prepare the mold by spraying it lightly with some cooking spray This will prevent the heart from sticking in the mold later Sit the mold in a bowl surrounded by a towel to hold it upright Pour in a small amount of the liquid Just enough to cover the bottom about a half inch worth Stick this in the fridge to cool We will come back to it later Now let s make the blood bag while we re waiting for that little bit of gelatin in the mold to firm up Pour some clear corn syrup and Grenadine in the blood bag Use more Grenadine if you want the blood to be runnier more of a spurt if the heart is stabbed or more corn syrup if you want it thicker more of an ooze This version is an oozer For an example of a spurter take a look at this video Add red food coloring if it s not red enough Add a couple drops of green food coloring to make the red darker if needed If you want any extras to be inside the heart like a ring you should put them in the blood bag Now tie off the bag carefully so you have a triangle or cone shaped bag of blood Cut off the tail of the bag right above the knot This bag will sit inside the heart Note that while the heart and the blood is edible and even kind of tasty the bag is not If your intention is to use the heart as a dessert and not just a prop you may want to consider making two hearts one with a blood bag for show and one without a blood bag for eating Once the gelatin in the bottom of the mold has firmed up enough place the bag of blood on it and center it as best as you can Try to keep it away from the edges of the mold Then pour the remaining gelatin mixture over the blood bag until you fill the mold Cover it with plastic wrap and stick it in the fridge until it sets preferably overnight TIP If you lay the plastic wrap directly on the surface of the liquid it will prevent the top layer from forming a tough skin After the heart has set loosen the edges of the mold with your fingertip then simply turn it out onto a plate Trim away the excess from the sides of the heart with a knife Cut on a bevel i e at an angle towards the bottom inside of the heart so it looks better Scoop out the arteries with a spoon Use a drinking straw for the smaller one It s starting to look like a heart Painting and Finishing Touches Now we apply some food coloring with a brush to make it look more realistic Of course we re only making look realistic in a comic book

    Original URL path: http://imakeprojects.com/Projects/bleeding-heart/ (2016-02-17)
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  • I Make Projects - How To Make Dual Bass Drum Pedals Work in ROCK BAND
    follow THAT up with another hit on the other pedal while the first one may still be down To do that we need a meta controller something intelligent that sits between the pedals and the controller It watches the pedals and sends a trigger signal to the main drum controller based on what it sees How It Is Made This schematic shows the circuit needed Note that it requires its own 5V power supply one based on the simple LM7805 should be sufficient and can be powered from a 9V battery You should be at least somewhat familiar with electronics to assemble this If you don t know what a 5V power supply is or why you would need one you re going to have trouble if you try to make one of these NOTE Make sure to connect 5V power to the 74HC14 Hex Inverter Pin 14 goes to 5V Pin 7 goes to GROUND The power connection to this part is not explicitly drawn on the logical symbols Make sure you get the 74HC14 Schmitt Trigger Hex Inverter The 7404 will not work All of the diodes can be pretty much any kind The 5V relay should be normally open and should be non latching The transistor is a 2N3904 but any garden variety NPN BJT should do What happens is that the closing of either input switch i e either pedal causes the output the relay to close for a short time then re open regardless of whether the input pedal is still down or not This allows pedal 1 to be pushed down to trigger a Bass Drum hit then while pedal 1 is still down pedal 2 can be hit to trigger another Bass Drum hit When working both pedals at once one after theother

    Original URL path: http://imakeprojects.com/Projects/rock-band-dual-bass-drums-controller/ (2016-02-17)
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  • I Make Projects - This Little Piggie is Made out of Meat
    endeavor so put your own spin on the details However this is what worked well for me Body and Mouth Cut a wedge for the mouth Make it big enough so that the cherry tomato will fit in and secure the tomato with toothpicks Legs Next cut the medium sized sausage into stubby pieces with one end a little slanted so they will fit the rounded body a little better Put stiff toothpicks or skewers into each leg so you can lower the body easily onto them Snout Next cut a chunk of the thick ham sausage this will be the snout Cut two equal size lengths of the pepperoni stick and color one end black with food coloring With a sharp knife cut two holes in the snout for the nostrils Make the holes a little smaller than the diameter of the pepperoni stick Insert the blackened pepperoni pieces into the holes in the snout and voila A cartoonish looking pig snout Attach it to the Piggie s face with toothpicks in a spot that looks right to you Eyes Cut two thin disks of pepperoni and color them black as well These round black disks will be the eyes attach with toothpicks in a spot that looks good Ears Next take the wedge you cut out for the mouth and shape it into two triangles These will be the ears Attach them with toothpicks in a spot that looks right Tail Cut a hole in the upper bum area and stick in the end of a curly fry Support it with a toothpick since it will droop as it cooks You should now have something that looks like this Feel free to add any other items to the pan that you d like to cook You can drizzle

    Original URL path: http://imakeprojects.com/Projects/meat-piggie/ (2016-02-17)
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  • I Make Projects - Color-Changing Hot-Cold Glowies
    them This is very simple and is very well understood application and you can t get much cheaper The electrical characteristics of a silicon diode changes depending on temperature Specifically the forward voltage will change depending on the temperature It s not much but it s enough to measure The microcontroller used PIC12F675 has built in Analog to Digital convertors These are used to measure the forward voltage of two identical diodes One of the diodes sticks out a little from the Glowie and serves as the main temperature sensor The other diode is lightly insulated from the ambient temperature This makes it slower to catch up to temperature changes Temperature changes are detected by comparing the main sensor to the insulated one As a result the Glowie doesn t actually know what temperature it is at least not in degrees But it is quite good at detecting temperature changes A temperature change upwards lights the red LED A change downwards lights the blue LED Since the Glowie measures and reacts many times per second borderline changes in temperature result in a flickering of the LEDs Strong changes have the LED lit solid In the animation you can see the Glowie responding to me blowing compressed air on the sensor to cool it followed by pressing my finger to the sensor to warm it The Glowie goes to sleep if there are no changes in the temperature detected This means that the power consumption is quite low unless an LED is lit in which case it consumes about 25mA As a result it s feasible to have the small rechargeable cells of the Glowie recharged by an attached solar cell This is enough to keep the Glowie running and feed the occasional LED lighting frenzy If the Glowie spends a

    Original URL path: http://imakeprojects.com/Projects/hot-cold-glowies/ (2016-02-17)
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  • I Make Projects - The Wii AK-47 Mod
    removed and re mounted remotely So we ll need a lot of suitably thin cables and the ability to solder small connections The cosmetic parts consist of mounting the nunchuk somewhere comfortable and mounting the other parts into and onto a body or shell I used a plastic mostly hollow AK 47 There s no reason you couldn t use something else perhaps even a glove of some sort Construction Details First the wiimote needs to be disassembled you will need a special Nintendo screwdriver for this One source for them is a place like DealExtreme The black component at the front is the IR sensor camera It needs to be removed so de solder it carefully Save the black plastic in front of the sensor It helps shield the camera from ambient light and should be replaced in front of the camera wherever you decide to mount it After removal wires should be carefully soldered to the camera and the other ends soldered to the matching holes on the wiimote circuitboard Afterwards would be a good time to make sure the wiimote still works If not make sure you have no solder bridges or wiring errors The other thing that needs doing is to locate the contacts for the A and B buttons and attach small thin wires to them so that they can be attached to remote switches which will serve as triggers The image shows the B button s wiring The A button is on the opposite side of the wiimote and should also be done If you use suitably thin wire like wire wrap wire the wire should be flush enough so that it doesn t interfere with the button operation allowing the A and B buttons on the wiimote to continue to function normally This would be a good time to fire the Wii up again and make sure the controller still works The A and B buttons should be triggered by touching their respective wires together momentarily Now all that s left is to attach some switches to the A and B button wires and fit those switches and controller guts or the entire controller if there is room into whatever you want Packing it into the AK shell Here are some pictures showing how I did the final assembly for my Wii AK 47 The IR camera with the black plastic IR shield replaced in front of the camera went onto the muzzle The camera was too large to fit inside the AK s actual muzzle opening so I made a small enclosure to hold it securely The switch for the main trigger gets attached to the wiimote B button A smaller secondary trigger switch was installed for the less used A button The nunchuck was left intact but I made a moulded holder for it out of sintra PVC foam board The board was cut to shape and heated with a heat gun until soft then moulded around the nunchuk After the

    Original URL path: http://imakeprojects.com/Projects/wii-ak47/ (2016-02-17)
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  • I Make Projects - How To Make a String of in-car LED Christmas Lights
    upholstery and use twist ties wherever necessary to hook or otherwise attach the string of lights in place In total there are 12 lights 6 on each arm which reaches just far enough around the car s interior to reach the rear windshield How They Are Made The following items are needed 12 LEDs I used 6 red and 6 green The normal diffused ones are better than the clear high brightness ones for this application A length of 2 conductor cable long enough to go around your car s interior I made the one shown out of green and red Christmas colors A 47 Ohm resistor It should be a beefy high wattage resistor since it will be getting quite warm in this configuration I had a 10W one handy which I used 12 Ping Pong balls A car accessory plug Power comes from the accessory plug about 12V or a little more will go through the 47 Ohm resistor and the LEDs will be wired up in parallel If you wish to play around with the number or type of LEDs or the wiring you should make sure your resistor is appropriate and your wiring layout is good An LED calculator there are many on the web here is one of them can help you here Assembly is simple but requires attention to detail since a mistake can at best result in a Christmas light string that partially or wholly doesn t work or at worst a short circuit being plugged into your car s electrical system The Schematic Click for a larger version This design wires the LEDs in parallel which is easier to construct but requires a physically big resistor since the resistor needs to dissapate a lot of heat from the current it will be handling Building the LED String First it may be useful to measure out the cable inside your vehicle and mark off where you d like the bulbs to be and how long you d like the cable to reach If you don t particularly care you can just space them more or less evenly First select a spot for your first LED separate the wires if required and strip a piece of the two wires so that the conductors are exposed You don t need to actually remove the insulation from the wires entirely you should be able to just push them aside enough with a wire stripper so that you can solder the LED to the conductors Next bend the leads of your selected LED as shown The longer lead goes to what will be the wire It is critical that you are consistent All short leads of all LEDs should go to the same wire and conversely all longer leads should go to the other wire Then solder the LED onto the wire Make sure it s securely soldered Now cut a small hole in a table tennis ball big enough for the LED to poke through Finally

    Original URL path: http://imakeprojects.com/Projects/car-xmas-lights/ (2016-02-17)
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  • I Make Projects - How To Turn a Digital Photo into a Beautiful Watercolor
    watercolor painting All you need to do this is some inkjet photo printouts on glossy paper the cheaper kinds seem to work better a paintbrush paper towels and some water Why It Works Glossy photo paper is a little like the back of a postage stamp If you wet your fingertip and touch the paper you ll find that it sticks Now while the ink that the photo image consists of isn t necessarily water soluble the paper and that back of postage stamp binding agent is This is why we can apply water selectively with a paintbrush to loosen diffuse and lift wash away sections and layers of the printed photo In my tests cheap photo paper Likon 20 pack from the 1 store seems to work better then the more expensive kinds such as HP Photo Print Some Techniques to Try Here are a few things I have tried I encourage you to try your own experiments and put your own twists on things These are some effects to obtain using this reverse painting concept The Eraser Successive passes with a lightly watered brush will gradually remove color and expose the white photo paper beneath I decided on the term reverse painting based on noticing this effect in particular Smudge This does a very light soften blend effect This is very touchy and similar to The Eraser but to do it you use just a little more water and a little less motion than for The Eraser You need to stop before you actually lift away any ink This is tricky because when ink lifts away it happens all at once and when exactly that occurs depends on the ink density and the paper quality Sanding Applying water onto a region of the photo then soaking up the

    Original URL path: http://imakeprojects.com/Projects/digital-photo-painting/ (2016-02-17)
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