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  • Nikon | Imaging Products | DSLR Camera Basics | Shutter Speed
    Subject Motion at Slow Shutter Speeds To view this content JavaScript must be enabled and you need the latest version of the Adobe Flash Player The illustration is an artist s conception In the photograph taken at a fast shutter speed the walker appears frozen in mid step This is due to the fact that only a brief instant of the walker s motion was recorded because the shutter was only open for a short time In the photograph taken at a slow shutter speed the walker is blurred This is due to the fact that the walker moved while the shutter was open Fast shutter speed Slow shutter speed Expressing Subject Movement Fast shutter speeds freeze motion Slow shutter speeds suggest motion Shutter Speed Values Shutter speeds change as shown below Choosing a shutter speed one step faster than the current shutter speed by for example changing shutter speed from 1 60 s to 1 125 s is referred to as increasing shutter speed by one step and halves the amount of time the shutter is open Choosing a shutter speed one step slower than the current shutter speed for example by changing shutter speed from 1 125 s to 1 60 s is referred to as slowing shutter speed by one step and doubles the amount of time the shutter is open If you are using a Nikon DSLR Camera shutter speed changes in 1 3 steps some models also support increments of 1 step and 1 2 step Camera Blur and Motion Blur If the camera or subject moves while the shutter is open the picture will be blurred Blur caused by subject movement is referred to as subject blur or motion blur blur caused by camera movement camera shake is referred to as camera blur The

    Original URL path: http://chsvimg.nikon.com/lineup/dslr/basics/04/03.htm (2016-02-17)
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  • Nikon | Imaging Products | DSLR Camera Basics | Aperture
    that passes through the lens the lower the f number the larger the aperture and the more light that passes through the lens For example changing the aperture from f 4 to f 5 6 halves the amount of light passing through the lens and halves the brightness of the image that falls on the image sensor Changing the f number also changes the distance in front of or behind the focus point that appears to be in focus The higher the f number the greater the distance in front of and behind the focus point that appears to be in focus on the other hand the lower the f number the shorter the distance in front of and behind the focus point that appears to be in focus The distance in front of and behind the focus point that appears to be in focus is referred to as depth of field Photographing the Same Scene at Different Apertures Changing the aperture changes depth of field High f number increased depth of field To view this content JavaScript must be enabled and you need the latest version of the Adobe Flash Player The illustration is an artist s conception Depth of field long Click image to enlarge Low f number decreased depth of field To view this content JavaScript must be enabled and you need the latest version of the Adobe Flash Player The illustration is an artist s conception Depth of field short Click image to enlarge f numbers f numbers change as shown below Raising the f number one step is referred to as stopping aperture down a step or stepping aperture down an f stop This halves the area of the aperture or opening halving the brightness of the image that falls on the image sensor Lowering

    Original URL path: http://chsvimg.nikon.com/lineup/dslr/basics/04/04.htm (2016-02-17)
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  • Nikon | Imaging Products | DSLR Camera Basics | Combining Aperture and Shutter Speed
    shutter speed in proportion On the other hand you can also achieve optimal exposure by choosing a lower f number and a faster shutter speed In other words there are many combinations of aperture and shutter speed that will produce the same exposure For example suppose the subject will be correctly exposed at an aperture of f 4 and a shutter speed of 1 250 s The correct exposure will then also be achieved if you increase the f number to f 5 6 while slowing shutter speed to 1 125 s The same is true at f 8 and 1 60 s and at f 11 and 1 30 s Combinations of aperture and shutter speed that will produce the same exposure as f 4 1 250 s Aperture F16 F11 F8 F5 6 F4 F2 8 F2 F1 4 Shutter speed seconds 1 15 1 30 1 60 1 125 1 250 1 500 1 1000 1 2000 If you always adjust shutter speed to match any changes in aperture you can achieve correct exposure at any aperture or shutter speed Note however that changing aperture also changes depth of field while changing shutter speed alters the appearance of moving objects In other words you can also adjust aperture for depth of field or shutter speed to produce the effect of motion The distance in front of and behind the focus point that appears to be in focus is referred to as depth of field Higher f numbers slower shutter speed To view this content JavaScript must be enabled and you need the latest version of the Adobe Flash Player The illustration is an artist s conception Lower f numbers faster shutter speeds To view this content JavaScript must be enabled and you need the latest version of

    Original URL path: http://chsvimg.nikon.com/lineup/dslr/basics/04/05.htm (2016-02-17)
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  • Nikon | Imaging Products | DSLR Camera Basics | P, S, A, and M Modes (Exposure Modes)
    Priority Auto The photographer chooses the shutter speed and the camera automatically adjusts aperture for optimal exposure Mode A Aperture Priority Auto The photographer chooses the aperture and the camera automatically adjusts shutter speed for optimal exposure Note that in all three modes P S and A exposure is automatically adjusted for optimal results Mode M Manual The photographer chooses both aperture and shutter speed providing the greatest latitude for creative expression Choosing the wrong combination could however result in photographs that are too bright overexposed or too dark underexposed We therefore recommend using the camera exposure indicator as a guide when choosing aperture and shutter speed Mode Shutter Speed Aperture P programmed auto Selected by camera Selected by camera S shutter priority auto Selected by photographer Selected by camera A aperture priority auto Selected by camera Selected by photographer M manual Selected by photographer Selected by photographer Choosing the Right Shutter Speed in Mode S In mode S the photographer controls shutter speed and the camera automatically adjusts aperture for optimal exposure Given however that the range of shutter speeds available is extremely large for example from 30 s to 1 4 000 s under certain conditions there may be shutter speeds at which no possible aperture setting could produce optimal exposure For example if you select a fast shutter speed such as 1 4 000 s for a dark interior shot the time the image sensor will be exposed to light will be too short for optimal exposure even if the lowest f number is used to ensure that the image that falls on the sensor during that time is as bright as possible and the photograph will be too dark underexposed In this case the aperture display will show Lo On the other hand if you select

    Original URL path: http://chsvimg.nikon.com/lineup/dslr/basics/04/06.htm (2016-02-17)
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  • Nikon | Imaging Products | DSLR Camera Basics | Exposure Compensation
    Combining Aperture and Shutter Speed P S A and M Modes Exposure Modes Exposure Compensation Exposure Compensation Exposure compensation is used to alter exposure from the value selected by the camera making photographs brighter or darker In modes P S and A the camera automatically adjusts settings for optimal exposure but this may not always produce the exposure the photographer intended Exposure is a matter of personal preference and an exposure brighter or darker than that selected by the camera may sometimes better reflect the photographer s intent The feature used in such situations is called exposure compensation DSLR Cameras allow you to check the results immediately so you can take a photograph display it in the monitor and then raise exposure compensation for brighter results or lower exposure compensation for darker results and take another picture A dark backlit subject The same subject brightened with positive exposure compensation Sample Camera Displays camera information display Exposure compensation Displayed as 1 0 0 7 0 3 0 0 0 3 0 7 1 0 where 1 0 is one step darker than the optimal exposure value selected by the camera Related items Exposure Setting Exposure Shutter Speed and Aperture Shutter Speed

    Original URL path: http://chsvimg.nikon.com/lineup/dslr/basics/04/07.htm (2016-02-17)
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  • Nikon | Imaging Products | DSLR Camera Basics | ISO Sensitivity
    to achieve optimal exposure In other words if ISO sensitivity is raised from ISO 100 to ISO 200 while aperture is left unchanged the same exposure can be achieved with a shutter speed twice as fast The same is true if ISO sensitivity is raised from ISO 200 to ISO 400 The slow shutter speeds needed for dark interior scenes leave photographs prone to camera blur If you raise ISO sensitivity you can choose faster shutter speeds and reduce camera blur This is why people say that ISO sensitivity should be raised if lighting is poor ISO sensitivity can be set manually by the photographer or automatically by the camera Dark Scenes Raising ISO Sensitivity Low ISO sensitivity slow shutter speed High ISO sensitivity fast shutter speed These photographs of a cyclist were taken under low light Low ISO sensitivities require slow shutter speeds for correct exposure resulting in blur caused by subject motion High ISO sensitivities allow correct exposure to be achieved at faster shutter speeds making it possible to take photographs that freeze motion No Flash Low Light Photography When lighting is poor you can use a flash to light portrait subjects Flash units however have limited range If you raise ISO sensitivity you can optimally expose both the portrait subject and the background without using a flash at all Photo taken with flash Photo taken at high ISO sensitivity with flash off Noise Raising ISO sensitivity allows faster shutter speeds reducing blur caused by subject or camera movement You may wonder why if that s the case you shouldn t simply always shoot at the highest ISO sensitivity setting but in fact raising ISO sensitivity can introduce a type of image artifact known as noise into your photographs making them seem grainy Raising ISO sensitivity amplifies the

    Original URL path: http://chsvimg.nikon.com/lineup/dslr/basics/13/index.htm (2016-02-17)
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  • Nikon | Imaging Products | DSLR Camera Basics | Autofocus
    an artist s conception Autofocus AF is the system that automatically adjusts camera focus Cameras typically have a two stage shutter release button a first stage in which the shutter release button is lightly pressed halfway and a second in which the shutter release button is pressed the rest of the way down The camera focuses when the shutter release button is pressed halfway and takes a picture when the

    Original URL path: http://chsvimg.nikon.com/lineup/dslr/basics/16/01.htm (2016-02-17)
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  • Nikon | Imaging Products | DSLR Camera Basics | AF-Area Mode (Viewfinder Photography)
    the camera The setting that determines how the focus point is selected is called AF area mode You can choose from auto area AF single point AF dynamic area AF and 3D tracking These AF area modes are described below Single point The photographer selects the focus point manually the camera focuses on the subject in the selected focus point Choose for stationary subjects Dynamic area The photographer selects the focus point manually as above but if the subject briefly leaves the selected focus point the camera will focus based on information on the subject from surrounding focus points Choose for subjects that are moving unpredictably Auto area The camera detects the focus point containing the subject and focuses automatically 3D tracking 11 focus points The photographer selects the focus point manually if the shutter release button is kept pressed halfway after the camera has focused the photographer can change the composition and the camera will automatically choose a new focus point as necessary to maintain focus on the selected subject The Focus Point Display The locations within the frame that the camera can use for autofocus are shown by focus points in the viewfinder In single point AF dynamic

    Original URL path: http://chsvimg.nikon.com/lineup/dslr/basics/16/02.htm (2016-02-17)
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