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  • How to Survive An Avalanche: Escape Certain Death
    onto these slopes during clear weather and that dangerous conditions may be developing even though it is not storming Temperature Snow persists in an unstable condition longer under cold temperatures It settles and stabilizes more rapidly during warmer weather that s near or above freezing But beware high and rapidly rising temperatures in the spring months They may result in wet snow slides particularly from south facing slopes Beware of any rapid change in temperature Shadows creeping across a slope may change temperatures enough to create dangerous conditions Snowfall Rate Snow falling at the rate of one inch per hour or more increases avalanche danger rapidly General Observations Old Slide Paths An avalanche path that has slid once will slide again Look for old scars in timber and avoid steep gullies and steep open slopes Recent Avalanche Activity Look around if you see new avalanches you should suspect dangerous conditions Sound and Cracks If the snow sounds hollow particularly on a slope full of wind blown snow conditions are probably dangerous if the snow covers cracks that are found running in the snow slab avalanche danger is high Avalanche Information Check weather forecasts For particular information contact a US Forest Service Snow Ranger or the nearest winter sports area ski patrol Choosing a Route to Avoid an Avalanche The safest routes are on ridge tops and slightly on the windward side away from the ridges edge Windward slopes are almost always the safest If you cannot travel on ridges the next safest route is out in the valley away from the bottom part of slopes Stay high and near the top if you must cross dangerous slopes or avalanche paths if you can see old or new avalanche fracture lines be sure to avoid them and other similar areas Go straight up or down if you must ascend or descend a dangerous slope do not make traverses back and forth across it Take advantage of areas of dense timber ridges or rocky outcrops as islands of safety Use them for lunch and rest stops and spend the least time possible out on the open slopes Snowmobiles must not travel across the lower part of slopes and especially not across long open slopes or known avalanche paths Look for and obey all signs or other warnings of avalanche danger Avalanche Precaution Rules of Thumb Only one person at a time on a suspect slope all others watch the person that may be in danger Remove ski pole straps and ski safety straps loosen all equipment put on and fasten mitts cap and all other clothing before being exposed to avalanche danger Carry and use an avalanche cord as well as a sectional probe What To Do if You re Caught in an Avalanche Discard all equipment skis poles snowboard snowshoes If you have a snowmobile leave it Remember the terrain Be prepared for falls over cliffs collisions with trees and the stop in the runout zone Seek shelter behind rocks trees vehicles Crouch low and turn away from the avalanche Cover nose and mouth snow can fill your nostrils and mouth Brace against impact hold onto trees etc Do not cry out or open your mouth as the avalanche is occurring As the avalanche slows Pull hands and arms to the face and make an air space Thrust and kick to the surface just before the snow comes to a complete stop Try to stay on top and work your way to the side of the avalanche Thrust an arm toward the surface When the Avalanche has Stopped Try to dig yourself out Call out when you can especially when rescuers are near Though we re sure it will be close to impossible try to stay calm The most important thing you can have at that moment is a clear head Use it If You are the Survivor Mark the place where you last saw the victims Search for them in the fall line and directly below the last seen point Search the area of greatest snow deposition first You are their best hope for survival Do not desert those trapped and go for help unless you are certain help is only a few minutes away Remember you must consider not only the time for you go to get help but the time required for help to return Also the victim has only a 50 chance of surviving for an hour If you do go for help mark the route so a rescue party can follow it back If You re in a Vehicle and Buried by an Avalanche Now if you are in a vehicle the first thing to do is turn off the engine Do not smoke or use matches While it may not be obvious at first these activities will waste what precious air you have a definite no no Open a window and check for depth of burial with some kind of stick pole or probe Do not leave the vehicle unless you feel sure it is safe to do so or you are in a remote location If you have a two way radio keep it turned on it may quickly become your best friend in this situation Use it to call for help Search Rescue After and Avalanche The two very best ways to initialize a good rescue if you happen to survive witness or come upon an avalanche accident are 1 To make sure at least one of you possesses and can work an avalanche transceiver which helps you find those lost in the snow and 2 To always travel and work in a group when you are traversing through the snow Avalanche Tranceivers A number of years ago all manufacturers of avalanche transceivers agreed to manufacture only transceivers that transmitted and received on a frequency of 457 kiloHertz or 457 kHz One of the benefits of using this frequency is that it allowed a new and faster searching method called the induction line

    Original URL path: http://www.secretsofsurvival.com/survival/avalanche.html (2016-02-14)
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  • Asteroid Survival - How to Survive the 2036 Asteroid - Apophis
    t expect anything good For an example of the devastation that could be caused we must look to the Earth s hypothesized history It is widely believed that a huge 10 kilometer asteroid set down in what is now the Yucatan Penninsula of Mexico about 65 million years ago This collision formed the Chicxulub Crater that can be seen below the pennisula an ancient crater approximately 180 kilometers wide Now that s the small stuff The impact from this event is also hypothesized to have wiped out the dinosaurs and destroyed the majority of plant and animal life beyond our enormous predecessors on the planet Said another way the force from the asteroid s impact would ve been approximately 2 000 000 times more powerful than the most powerful explosive device ever detonated Thus it would have almost certainly served to unleash some of the largest megatsunami s in the Earth s history Further the emission of dust and particles likely shrouded the planet in darkness for many years In essence the effect would ve been much like a nuclear winter Ouch That said much smaller asteroids have shown the ability to be quite destructive on their own For example an asteroid that touched down in Winslow Arizona roughly 50 000 years ago is hypothesized to have unleashed the equivalent energy of 500 Hiroshima bombs And that s just asteroids Try on comets for a moment Back in 1908 a mere 50 meter piece of comet touched down in Siberia Though no crater formed the blast was the equivalent of 600 Hiroshima bombs and leveled everything plants trees land everything for miles around Lucky it landed in such a relatively barren area By the way Apophis is approximately 250 meters long Here s the first piece to the puzzle detection Obviously in order to protect ourselves we need to know that an asteroid is coming Most researchers seem to agree that for a relatively large asteroid 200 300 meters long we d have to know years in advance for any deflection strategy to work Thus the reason why various researchers and citizen groups have requested that Congress and now the United Nations do a better job with detection In fact back in 1990 Congress authorized better detection of such events to NASA by writing that it was imperative that detection rate of Earth orbit crossing asteroids must be increased substantially and that means to destroy or alter the orbits should be defined and agreed internationally That said on January 7 2002 a huge asteroid known as 2001 YB5 passed very close to our planet The problem We didn t know about it until mere weeks before the occurrence Still there have been huge improvements in national and international detection of NEO s Further there have even been efforts made such as with the Deep Impact Probe to see what asteroids or comets are made of in the hopes that this might help us to determine a course of action to

    Original URL path: http://www.secretsofsurvival.com/survival/2036_asteroid.html (2016-02-14)
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  • The Top Ten Volcanoes Most Likely to Erupt
    Mount Merapi is located in Central Java Indonesia In short it is one of the most active volcanos in the world and certainly within that area Along with this it has been a constant source of volcano eruption since about 1548 and several of its eruptions have caused fatalities Many scientists believe that a large scale eruption is imminent Unfortunately that means that the city of Yogyakarta could be in big trouble Further Merapi is one of 16 volcanos designated by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth s Interior IAVCEI as a Decade Volcano In other words it is considered to be a volcano that must be watched in light of its history and closeness to populated areas Mount Baker volcano According to the USGS Mount Baker dominates the skyline from Bellingham Washington to Vancouver British Columbia Unfortunately the steam that is always rising from its Sherman Crater increased in heat and intensity back in 1975 and that change put geologist on their toes To this day they still are If Mount Baker were to erupt the greatest worry would be the lahars In other words if the volcano were to erupt it would likely melt snow and ice that would serve to help the flow of sediment and such Further collapses of landscapes could serve to foster these landslides So watch out all of you Washington residents Mount Rainier volcano Speaking of Washington state Mount Rainier is probably the most dangerous volcano in the Cascades range it is also one of Washington s active volcanos One of the problems with this volcano like Mount Baker is that it is covered in ice and snow Thus lahars would be a huge issue What s worse is that the population surrounding it lives in lowland areas including Seattle Further the volcano is very steep which would allow the debris lava etc to gain great speed as it plummeted down on civilization The largest debris avalanche on record from Rainier traveled a course of over 60 miles to Puget Sound The last time Mount Rainier erupted was 2 200 years ago Unfortunately if that eruption were to repeat itself the damage would be devastating Mount Ranier is also a Decade Volcano Mauna Loa volcano Mauna Loa is located in Hawaii and is an active shield volcano Its name means long mountain in Hawaiian which is appropriate considering it is the Earth s largest volcano Guesses estimate that the volcano emerged from the sea around 400 000 years ago and has been erupting for about 700 000 years Its magma comes from the same part of the Earth s mantle below the island that is responsible for the emergence of the Hawaiian islands Mauna Loa has not erupted since 1984 Further it is believed that the volcano will eventually become extinct However if it were to erupt on a large scale the results could be absolutely devastating This of course prompted its inclusion on the Decade Volcanoes list Teide

    Original URL path: http://www.secretsofsurvival.com/survival/volcanoes.html (2016-02-14)
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  • Famines - How to Survive a Famine
    When that happens drought crop issues and pestilence are often culprits Famine can also be brought on by war and political problems Politically at different times in history choices have been made by governments that have resulted in famines Many times those in power have literally deprived the middle income and poor In fact many believe that the North Korean famine of the 1990s was a direct result of government actions forced on the people There are many who believe that almost all famine is in essence truly compelled more by politics than nature in other words problems that cause issues in the food supply can be handled by a pro active government one that is adequately prepared for a disaster and any food shortages that may arise Regardless with the natural changes occurring all around us some say climate change or global warming others say the hand of God and the Bible end times of the modern world the possibility of widespread famine due to climat change or widespread disaster is becoming more and more plausible even in the United States of America What Does it Take to Survive a Famine Historically the United States unlike countries such as North Korea for example tries to make decisions that are in the best interests of its people That s the hope anyway hope coming from the American people However you shouldn t assume that the United States will be able to come through for you After all if it wasn t completely clear to you after Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans we are not in charge of nature Still political policies will play a huge role in determining whether or not we survive a famine However since that is in essence outside of our control with the exception of course of the voting process let s talk about three other things that could help during a famine Namely these are growing food storing food and hunting trapping and fishing Growing Food During a Famine This one is tough to talk about simply because the task of growing food may be why the famine you re dealing with is even happening That said consider that there may still be ways to grow food at least on a small scale The Green Revolution Okay the Green Revolution basically refers to the spread of technologies for subsistence agriculture to countries that needed them Things like pesticides irrigation projects and nitrogen fertilizer These concepts and materials first spread to Mexico in 1943 Now you re probably asking what this has to do with surviving a famine on your own Well simply follow suit In other words you ll need some know how strong seeds when shopping for seeds ask for seeds that have the best chances to grow in sub prime conditions land and pesticides fertilizers If you re worried about a famine in your neck of the woods call a garden center and ask them what crops pesticides and fertilizers would work best in your area Regardless during a famine growing food will almost certainly be a tough prospect After all if it were easy then the famine wouldn t be occurring right Which leads us to the next section of this article Becoming a Survivor Hunting Trapping and Fishing In the CBS television show Jericho the story unfolds around a small Kansas town and its challenges trying to survive following a nuclear attack that has decimated the United States of America As a result the town of Jericho Kansas begins to starve as a result of food shortages at the same time there isn t an abundance of wildlife in the area to provide food In other words there s not much to hunt Even if there was several towns and cities have too many people there would just be too much competition between hunters in the early days and weeks of a disaster and famine hunting in an area would be short lived and for most people unsuccessful Those who went after big game deer elk etc first would likely face the most challenges as a sudden increase in hunting would drive many of these animals out of the area Small Mammals Birds Snakes and Insects on the Menu Those willing to forgo big game instead for small animals like rabbit duck turkey squirrels cats and dogs in a worst case scenario stand to have the best chances of bringing home a meal in a time like this In most communities there are a number of small mammals and even reptiles like snakes that make a tasty meal in a time of need You just have to be willing to look outside the traditional Western diet and you ll find a number of foods even things like insects and earthworms to get you by on days when there s simply nothing to eat If you learn to think like a survivor you ll find that these things are actually a lot easier to eat than you might believe today With small mammals birds snakes and insects on the menu that doesn t mean there won t be any big game out there as covered in a previous article on hunting big game like elk you re going to need to go to remote areas for big game the more remote the better That s because experienced hunters will target prime areas which will be remote first because they know how to hunt and they understand the dynamic of hunting pressure and how it drives big game quickly out of an area As a rule of thumb if you want to hunt in a time like this seek out wilderness areas that are deep in the wilderness Now you ll have the best chances of finding big game that hasn t been spooked by a drastic increase in hunting pressure Finally when it comes to hunting those with experience and knowledge of the land stand to do best Those without experience or

    Original URL path: http://www.secretsofsurvival.com/survival/famine.html (2016-02-14)
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  • How to Survive a Comet Collision with Earth
    they tend to fly in elongated orbits around the sun making them difficult to both find and track accurately The good news for humanity in general is that calculations soon afterward placed the chances of impact of Earth at 1 in 120 000 000 That of course is very low Still it is not a rule out Next there is a comet by the name of Swift Tuttle Swift Tuttle is a relative frequent flyer by the Earth On one hand scientists believe that there is virtually no chance that this comet will strike our planet anytime in this millennium However some scientists believe that Swift Tuttle will eventually strike us even if the threat is far off What is a comet For the most part a comet is an object in the solar system that orbits the sun sometimes has a coma or atmosphere and a tail These characteristics are added mostly because of the effects of solar radiation upon the comet s nucleus the nucleus is made of rock dust ice etc The interesting thing is that comets orbits are highly variable First they are almost always highly affected by close calls with major planets sometimes even being moved into orbits that destroy them due to their nearness to the Sun One of the reasons why comets are so easily moved is because the outgassing that creates their comas and tails propels them in mysterious and unpredictable ways Which of course is a major reason why it is so hard to validly estimate their orbits oftentimes comets are lost to us That said if they can be lost then they can surely be found In other words a comet that is thought to not be a danger to Earth could conceivably become one with little notice Last it would seem important to note that in one instance a comet was found to orbit a planet not the sun Back in 1994 the Comet Shoemaker Levy 9 SL9 collided with Jupiter Interestingly this provided scientists and humans with the first direct observation of planetary impact by a comet Of course the incident allowed scientists to learn much about such a happening But beyond that the comet also gave scientists another first before the impact You see SL9 represents the first comet known to man that orbited a planet in this case Jupiter Thus it became the first known comet not necessarily tied to the sun in a big way lending credence to the highly variable paths of comets in general The Comets Catalina and Swift Tuttle In the end the Comet Catalina named Catalina because it was discovered by the Catalina Sky Survey is unlikely to impact Earth But when one considers the fact that it was only recently discovered the difficulty finding and judging paths of comets is underscored In other words what if another planet s atmosphere sends it on a slightly different path than scientists have estimated Well let s put it this way If Catalina

    Original URL path: http://www.secretsofsurvival.com/survival/comet_collision_with_earth.html (2016-02-14)
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  • How to Survive a Flood or Flash Flood
    Rather than attempt a freestyle swim stroke an expert interviewed by NBC s Today demonstrates in this video how to swim on your back feet first and use your arms behind you to help steer Swimming in this way is only a last resort if no other option is available and you can t stay were you re at because of the rising water 2013 Floods Destroy Parts of Colorado 2013 s catastrophic floods across the Colorado landscape have taken the danger of floods and the importance of flood survival to a new level The rains that came down in Colorado were called a 1000 year event What happens when the next 1000 year event comes to your region of the country There are a lot of people in Colorado that probably never expected to be swept away in a flood Yet hundreds of people went missing in Colorado several probably dead and swept away by a flood they never saw coming and never took the time to prepare for Wouldn t it be better to be prepared just in case your region is next What causes flooding Usually prolonged and intense rainfall However floods can also be caused by short extremely intense rainfall and or ice or debris jams that cause a body of water to overflow Further floods tend to occur in low lying areas such as New Orleans most frequently These low sea level areas are often called floodplains A flash flood is one where there is little to no warning These are often caused by very intense rainfall or ice debris jams that let go How to survive a flood when it s about to happen or is happening The most important thing is to pay attention to emergency personnel and your situation If your home is located in a floodplains area you have to pay particular attention to the National Weather Service They will oftentimes let you know about floods sometimes on the tail of a large scale weather event like a hurricane in advance with warnings and or watches Something to pay particular attention to is this If emergency personnel tell you that you should evacuate to higher ground do it Do not play hero it is not a prudent course of action to take By the way that s the key When a flood comes rolling in people that live on floodplains and low lying areas should move to higher ground Remember that only two feet of water can literally carry an automobile away Along with this playing or swimming in flood waters can be very dangerous It should never be done Another interesting note is that snakes are oftentimes carried away from their homes in flood water Thus this adds another danger to the overflow particularly if you live in an area with snakes of the poisonous variety Planning for a flood First thing s first Have homeowner s insurance The next thing to understand is that homeowner s policies do not

    Original URL path: http://www.secretsofsurvival.com/survival/flood_flash_floods.html (2016-02-14)
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  • How to Survive an Encounter with Dangerous Animals After A Disaster
    deer without having to take sloppy seconds from a bear wolf or big cat getting to your kill first if lets say you re a hunter who has just taken down a deer or other animal Unfortunately there s no single way to cover all these opponents in the field The best thing to do is know your surrounding area and the types of animals you re likely to encounter and take steps to prevent them from taking your food and from attacking you Set Traps for Dangerous Animals Spiked pits are an interesting trap but they don t target a single animal you re just as likely to capture your Uncle Frank as you are a bear or a big cat I ve thought of an interesting safety measure put a printed sign with an arrow pointing at the trap none of the animals can read and hopefully your uncle can There s a trap called a dead fall which was popular in the 1800s before the advent of steel traps It involved using a weight five to six times heavier than your target place it over the bait and set a trigger so when the bait is engaged the weight typically a large log falls on the target killing or trapping them It was abandoned because it was so tedious and time consuming to build but if you can t run down to the local trap store after society falls it s still an option Learning how to track animals will let you know where they wander what the boundaries of their territory are and more importantly what kind of animal and how many you re dealing with Bears and tigers are typically solitary but wolves have packs and lions have prides you re likely to encounter a few at a time Persistence As a human you have many more tools in your arsenal to fight the enemy with You re ingenuity and persistence can win the day Typically these large animals are going to take the path of least resistance if you are too much trouble they re going to go find easier prey However a mother and her babies is a dangerous combination that mother will defend against any threat no matter how big to the death A starving or sick animal is also likely to not be deterred by any means from an attack But seriously don t mess with mama bear or you re toast So what can you do to protect yourself If you have allies and there are enough of you a phalanx of spears or arrows may be enough to bring down any or all of these animals One man alone against a bear lion or tiger is a losing proposition Even hard core guns may have a problem taking one of these large animals out with one or two shots A group of wolves will circle you if given the chance and you won t be able to shoot all

    Original URL path: http://www.secretsofsurvival.com/survival/how-to-survive-an-encounter-with-dangerous-animals-after-a-disaster.html (2016-02-14)
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  • Why It's Important to Have a Family Survival Plan
    into action there are several basic essentials that need to be planned for Such things include water food fuel shelter personal identification and safety There are many different methods for storing water and cooking food so determine which solution is the best for your plan One gallon of water per person per day is considered the minimum amount of water you should be prepared to provide Take the time to learn about different methods of purifying water and in no circumstance should you ever consider drinking any water that you believe to be questionable Emergency Food Freeze dried or dehydrated food similar to what backpackers use are among the best types of food to store Because the size of families varies widely it is important for you to determine the right amount and types of food you will need to store Try to plan for simple but nutritious meals and include plenty of staples including rice beans and grains When you have purchased or prepared the necessary food stores make sure that they are sealed in containers that can be portable if needed and protect against insects rodents or other animals Portable Cooking Gear Why It s Important Chances are high that whatever situation you may face you will need to boil water When the gas and power are no longer flowing into your home or you are out on the road you will need some form of portable cooking gear Propane and light gas stoves are perfect devices suited for emergency cooking When purchasing an emergency stove it isn t always necessary to buy the top of the line brand but stay away from the bargain priced products The last thing you need in a survival situation is a cheap stove that breaks down when it is needed most You will also need to make sure you have an ample supply of fuel for your device When Disaster Strikes Turn off the Utilities If part of your survival plan involves remaining within your home whether it is for a short time or an extended period the first thing to do is to shut off all the utilities to your home This is done to make sure that your home does not experience additional dangers if and when services are restored Locate the shut off valves for all utility connections to your home and make sure the necessary tools to do the different jobs are accessible and in good working order Even if you plan on remaining in your home during a crisis situation depending upon the situation it may be necessary to identify a specific room or area to be used during the disaster Such things as weather and safety are important to consider when making such a decision If special modifications are needed plan for them in advance and make sure the supplies are available when the need arises Mountaineering Tents Great for Mobile Shelters If you will be leaving your home behind tents are among the best

    Original URL path: http://www.secretsofsurvival.com/survival/why-its-important-to-have-a-family-survival-plan.html (2016-02-14)
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