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  • The F-35: Creating a 21st Century Fighter
    get into an energy deficit it s hard for them to recover because of the low thrust to weight ratio and the aerodynamic penalty of sensors and weapons in the airstream The F 35 incorporates the best of both in flying qualities it will fly slowly at high angles of attack it can fly supersonic for extended periods of time and it regains energy quickly because of its large engine The engine is another example of building stealth into the airframe from the ground up In a legacy aircraft the power plant creates a significant element of combat visibility This impact to radar cross section comes from the front and rear of the engine Ideally the engine is totally hidden from view as in the B 2 and F 117 This approach impacts agility so a different design is found in the F 35 In front of the F 35 s engine is a bifurcated diverterless intake which totally blocks line of sight to the compressor face while not severely impacting performance At its rear is a reduced signature nozzle A final consideration with regard to building from the ground up is how stealth is manufactured into the aircraft The F 35 is manufactured with stealth built in as well As Bill Grant Lockheed Martin F 35 Supportable Low Observables Integrated Product Team leader has put it From day one supportable LO has been a key entity on the program and has had a profound influence on the very design of the airplane In fact the element that is manufactured into the skin was an initiative brought about by our LO maintenance discipline We ve also had a profound influence on the selection of the materials and then once they were decided upon we helped refine the properties to make them more workable for field use And Grant added Our system requirement was for end of life which means that throughout the 8 000 hour service life of the jet it is to remain fully mission capable So we anticipated that the amount of maintenance that would be done over the life of the airplane and anticipated that in the design So when we deliver the jet it s delivered with a significant margin of degradation that s allowed for all of these types of repairs over the life of the airplane again without having to return to the depot for refurbishment There may be some cosmetic based reasons why the jet might go back to a facility to get its appearance improved but from a performance standpoint we recognize no need to do that An example of the new approach to stealth and the new combat systems can be seen in the Northern Edge 2011 Exercise This exercise is a major U S joint forces exercise held in Alaska which tests the ability of the various elements of the forces to work together With the new emphasis on the Pacific or the Asian Pivot the exercise highlights the working

    Original URL path: http://www.sldinfo.com/whitepapers/the-f-35-creating-a-21st-century-fighter/ (2016-02-13)
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  • F-35 and Current Weapons
    to reduce airframe RCS are lost 5 th generation have the option of loading stores internally Slide 2 Legacy 4 th gen fighters must carry external fuel tanks in order to overcome the drag penalty of the external ordinance The F 35 does not need external fuel tanks for two reasons 1 the airframe was specifically designed to carry significant amounts of internal fuel and 2 there is no aerodynamic drag from internal ordinance Slide 3 A 4 th gen fighter is unable to safely penetrate denied airspace This is airspace for which the threats are able to dominate entirely against the 4 th generation 5 th gen fighters are able to penetrate denied airspace The internal ordinance of an F 35 is approximately that of an F 16 loaded wall to wall Because the weapons are internal the F 35 has a much longer combat range fully loaded or significantly longer loiter time in the area of interest In the permissive environment the F 35 holds another advantage over the F 16 payload The F 35 has 11 hard points and can carry about three times the stores load Slide 4 This picture shows an F 35A model with a full compliment of internal stores You can see two air to air missiles and two 2000lb class bombs This loadout which is all internal is about 5000lbs Internal carriage means ZERO impact on radar cross section and ZERO aerodynamic drag Slide 5 An F 16 fully loaded with external stores carries just over 5000lbs Because the load is external the radar cross sections is severely impacted as well as having a significant hit to aerodynamic performance The weapons within the blue cone can be carried internally in the F 35 The weapons with orange color font will be certified

    Original URL path: http://www.sldinfo.com/whitepapers/f-35-and-current-weapons/ (2016-02-13)
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  • The F-35 Combat Systems Fusion “Engine”
    an advanced fusion engine and against the multiple F 35s on the network that are each sharing fused sensor data This advanced network enabled capability makes the F 35 a tremendous force multiplier Like never before individual aircraft can work together seamlessly The system is so advanced and revolutionary in its design that there were concerns that test pilots would have difficulty isolating and testing a single sensor because the collective integrated suite would kick in Engineers deliberately put a specific pilot vehicle interface into the airplane to allow the pilots to select a single sensor and tell the fusion engine to allow only that sensor s track to come through This feature enables test pilots to verify individual sensors Now the enemy instead of just working against the radar is forced to fight an integrated and fused sensor suite The redundancy and comprehensive nature of the sensor suite gives the F 35 a tremendous advantage over legacy fighters This is the huge advantage of advanced fusion The F 22 Raptor has this ability so while it s not new it s being perfected in the F 35 and is a key characteristic of 5 th Generation fighters We know

    Original URL path: http://www.sldinfo.com/whitepapers/the-f-35-combat-systems-fusion-engine/ (2016-02-13)
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  • The iMotion Edgeware Platform:Reshaping the Logistics Enterprise
    development and promotion of its iMotion Edgeware platform which works to simplify the development deployment and management of RFID mobile and sensor based solutions The focus of this writer was upon GlobeRanger s proprietary secret sauce namely the iMotion Edgeware platform and correlated solution sets The company has created a proprietary software engine iMotion which has underpinned a family of enabling solution sets which the company has grown from one to several enabling solution sets Those enabling solution sets have then been applied to different product areas and a diversity of industry experience has been generated which then in turn allows a cross fertilization to other industrial experiences For example this means that the defense solution sets have benefited from the commercial experience of GlobeRanger and vice versa What can be missed is that the shift in logistics management enabled by the new technologies is really a cultural shift Rather than having supply chain of segments dependent on local reporting sent back to the core what can evolve is domain knowledge of the supply chain itself with appropriate levels of decision making to the relevant domain knowledge base It is also about enhanced safety and security in terms of creating more capable supply chain custody control which with regard to defense and security items is not just nice to have but indispensable to the performance of the entire enterprise According to GlobeRanger the key foundational element by which they have generated innovative logistical solutions is built around iMotion inside various solution sets GlobeRanger Corporation pioneered the creation of an information processing software infrastructure at the edge of the enterprise This enables companies to harness data generated outside traditional IT environments to improve their business processes and move closer to being real time organizations The advent of low cost RFID tags

    Original URL path: http://www.sldinfo.com/whitepapers/the-imotion-edgeware-platformreshaping-the-logistics-enterprise/ (2016-02-13)
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  • The F-35 With Software Upgradeability Built In
    a block process Each block represents the most mature capability for the aircraft at the time of release The aircraft is combat ready beginning with Block 2 In a real sense the software will never be finished on the F 35 As new code is written and capability refreshes are completed the F 35 software will evolve over time to further enhance the aircraft s performance The airplane was designed with technical refreshes in mind the program knew they would want to upgrade the hardware and software along the way even in the System Development and Demonstration SDD phase of the program The technical refreshes are primarily hardware and do not necessarily affect the software By refreshing the hardware we gain processing reserve in advance of future software With each block new capability is added to the foundational software from the previous block In other words the previous software isn t thrown away but merely built upon Block 2 introduces the various data links Block 2 also introduces many advanced air and surface weapons capability making the F 35 ready to go to war for the first time The sensors are integrated and fusion is working at Block 2 It is worth noting that the capabilities in Block 2 are sufficient for the Marines to declare Initial Operational Capable IOC Block 3 software builds on top of Block 2 by including the full weapon set and some additional sensor modes With Block 3 by the end of SDD the plane is fully capable The aircraft itself isn t really changing When we say hardware upgrade many think we are talking about a new sensor This is not the case All of the sensors are resident in the Block 1 airplane We are simply upgrading the computers in order to run

    Original URL path: http://www.sldinfo.com/whitepapers/the-f-35-with-software-upgradeability-built-in/ (2016-02-13)
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  • Building a 21st Century Fighter From the Ground Up
    hand enjoy VLO stealth along with agility In other words stealth is an enabler but not the whole story These are fighters first and foremost The F 35 aerodynamic challenge was to build a fighter with the low speed handling of the Hornet and the high speed performance of the Viper These design goals have been met and are being verified in flight test Slide 3 This slide shows the findings of the most recent Northern Edge environment Although the F 35 airframe has not been flown in Northern Edge some its sensors have been The sensors performed extremely well and portend a bright future It is understood by most that the electronic order of battle will play a key role in future conflicts Indeed in recent exercises that have included the F 22 the world s only other 5 th Generation fighter many key observations have been made regarding the benefits of operating 5 th Generation tactical aircraft in concert with 4 th Generation fighters It is expected the F 35 with its 5 th Generation capabilities of stealth advanced multi spectral precision sensors and enhanced interoperability provides many if not more of the same benefits to existing fighters and command and control assets as the F 22 demonstrated A 5 th Generation fighter with its ability to fly ahead of the package in contested air space will be able to ID threats for the entire package much sooner The presence of 5th Generation fighters in the package increases overall mission effectiveness by enhancing survivability and lethality for the entire combat package The common reaction of legacy pilots to a 5th Generation fighter is the incredible situation awareness SA that sensors and advanced integrated fusion provide over legacy aircraft This enhanced SA and fusion allow the aircraft to function as air battle managers for the package Even when the F 22 is weapons bingo it stays in the fight as a battle manager sharing this SA with the package 5th Generation fighters are able to complement command control platforms E 2 E 3 GCI They can provide a picture at greater ranges They can datalink back IDs fill ins threat data striker position and targeting information 5th Generation fighters will function as Non Traditional Intelligence Surveillance Reconnaissance NTISR and Suppression of Enemy Defense SEAD mission enablers and coordinators by Calling threat activity positions Minimizing emitter search volume for other ISR platforms Reducing EA 6 F 18E F and F 16CJ SEAD timelines The F 35 gives our most trusted allies and coalition partners a state of the art 5th Generation multi role Strike Fighter that is interoperable from a communication logistics and operational point of view with U S forces And the F 35 fleet can be deployed from main operating bases austere bases and ships CV and L class Slide 4 In this slide are depicted the generations of fighters from the first jets to the 5 th generation Also shown is the advancement of stealth across the

    Original URL path: http://www.sldinfo.com/whitepapers/building-a-21st-century-fighter-from-the-ground-up/ (2016-02-13)
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  • Shaping a Manageable Workload for the Pilot
    16 For instance datalinks datalinks are great tools and nobody wants to do without it them but if it s not fully integrated with an advanced fusion architecture it may result in information overload for the pilot The needed information is there somewhere it s just hard to find it to mentally correlate it and then to act on it Information overload leads to pilot task saturation and channelized attention which has a negative impact on survival Pilots may become preoccupied trying to interpret information when they need to be focused elsewhere Here s an example to which we can all relate Imagine your driving a car while studying the GPS or talking on the phone Your safety is decreasing and your performance is suffering It s an example of misdirected focus and channelized attention The same holds true in the cockpit Displays with information overload are focus magnets It drains more and more of the pilot s processing capacity as it takes an increasing amount of his attention to interpret data Consequently safety and performance are compromised During those periods of channelized attention pilots become vulnerable They may no longer be lethal They re certainly less survivable and safety has been negatively impacted even in the peacetime environment From the beginning of the program we set out to design a fully integrated sensor suite coupled to an advanced fusion engine shared by other F 35s in the formation Next we had to provide an easy to understand picture of battlespace in order to facilitate making tactical decisions based on that Common Operating Picture Instead of being buried by technological innovation the pilot is now in a position to master it adding technology in an integrated fashion doesn t make the situation worse it enhances it The 5 th generation

    Original URL path: http://www.sldinfo.com/whitepapers/shaping-a-manageable-workload-for-the-pilot/ (2016-02-13)
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  • Flying with the Common Operational Picture (COP)
    and nobody would give them up but they are not typically well integrated into the weapon system They are an add on much like a new sensor or new pod and must be managed and correlated which can cause information overload The COP gives us a visual vice verbal approach to generating synergy It s synergy in a picture rather than words Of course looking at the COP for a pilot with 1 000 hours of experience is going to be different than a newbie on his or her first mission You can t teach judgment and experience but we can begin to bring the valleys of inexperience up quickly and in such a matter that we have a positive effect on lethality and survivability The focus is on time which is a precious commodity in tactical employment Rather than pilots spending time constructing a mental picture of the battlespace the F 35 constructs this picture for them and presents it graphically Remember the core philosophy return the pilot to the role of tactician by managing workload and providing situational awareness that leads to information dominance One great way to do this is by returning time to the pilot This is time needed to evaluate the battlespace and to be a tactician The COP approach is symmetrical with the generational transition The visual world is where the next generation of fighter pilots will live and operate The next generation LIVES in a graphical world and they tend to process tasks graphically Legacy 4 th generation aircraft were forged in the MS DOS world which was textual rather than graphical Apple came on the scene and caused a paradigm shift The shift was to interacting with technology through graphics That same shift has finally made it to the tactical cockpit The generation to which we re referring is the millennials We built the F 35 weapon system for them and we ve had to remind ourselves that we are not building the F 35 for current 4 th generation pilots We re building it for the future ones I admit the paradigm shift in the cockpit is challenging with an HMD in lieu of a HUD voice control touch and the PCD We introduced risk into the cockpit but it will pay huge dividends in lethality and survivability for the next generation of pilots says Michael Skaff principal engineer for the F 35 s pilot vehicle interface If we re going to defeat the enemy then we have got to cycle through our Observe Orient Decide Act OODA loop faster and better at every level including the graphical level We built a fighter which is targeted toward a new generation of pilots The men and women who are in their first year at the academies right now will probably hit the fighter pipeline just about right to be the first Lightning II pilots right out of flight school These folks are millennials Squirt Kelly Aboard the USS Wasp during F 35B

    Original URL path: http://www.sldinfo.com/whitepapers/flying-with-the-common-operational-picture-cop/ (2016-02-13)
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