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  • Using the Bash Shell on CentOS 6 - Techotopia
    certain criteria For example the wildcard character to can be used to simplify the above example cat txt The above command will display the content of all files ending with a txt extension This could be further restricted to any file names beginning with list and ending in txt cat list txt Single character matches may be specified using the character cat list txt File Name and Path Completion Rather than typing in an entire file name or path or using pattern matching to reduce the amount of typing the shell provides a feature called file name completion In order to use filename completion simply enter the first few characters of the file or path name and then press the Esc key twice The shell will then complete the filename for you with the first file or path name in the directory that matches the characters you entered To obtain a list of possible matches press Esc after entering the first few characters Input and Output Redirection As previously mentioned many shell commands output information when executed By default this output goes to a device file called stdout which is essentially the terminal window or console in which the shell is running Conversely the shell takes input from a device file named stdin which by default is the keyboard Output from a command can be redirected from stdout to a physical file on the file system using the character For example to redirect the output from an ls command to a file named files txt the following command would be required ls txt files txt Upon completion files txt will contain the list of files in the current directory Similarly the contents of a file may be fed into a command in place of stdin For example to redirect the contents of a file as input to a command wc l files txt The above command will display the number of lines contained in files txt file It is important to note that redirection operator creates a new file or truncates an existing file when used In order to append to an existing file use the operator ls dat files txt In addition to standard output the shell also provides standard error output using stderr Whilst output from a command is directed to stdout any error messages generated by the command are directed to stderr This means that if stdout is directed to a file error messages will still appear in the terminal This is generally the desired behavior though stderr may also be redirected if desired using the 2 operator ls dkjfnvkjdnf 2 errormsg On completion of the command an error reporting the fact that the file named dkjfnvkjdnf could not be found will be contained in the errormsg file Both stderr and stdout may be redirected to the same file using the operator ls etc dkjfnvkjdnf alloutput On completion of execution the alloutput file will contain both a listing of the contents of the etc directory and the

    Original URL path: http://www.techotopia.com/index.php/Using_the_Bash_Shell_on_CentOS_6 (2016-02-13)
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  • Starting CentOS 6 Desktop Applications on Login - Techotopia
    into two categories those that are session managed and those that are not Session managed programs are aware that they are running in a session and are able to react to notifications from the session manager A session managed program for example will save all the current settings and data when informed by the session manager that the session is ending Depending on the session configuration settings the program will then restart with the previous settings and data the next time the session starts Programs that are not session managed will not be able to respond to notifications that the session is ending and will lose any settings and data that have not already been manually saved by the user Configuring Desktop Startup Programs The programs that get started when a user logs in are configured via the Startup Applications Preferences dialog This dialog is accessed from the System Preferences Startup Applications menu When first loaded the dialog displays the Startup Applications Preferences panel which lists the programs that are to be started when a user logs into a desktop session Any programs that are not required may be disabled on desktop startup simply by unchecking the selection box next to the item Most of the programs configured to start by default are there for a reason and use few system resources so unless you are sure you will not need the program for example you may never plan to use Bluetooth there is really little to be gained by disabling a program It is more likely however that you will need to add a program to be launched automatically when you login This can easily be achieved by clicking on the Add button In the resulting New Startup Program dialog enter a descriptive name for the program and then

    Original URL path: http://www.techotopia.com/index.php/Starting_CentOS_6_Desktop_Applications_on_Login (2016-02-13)
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