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  • Transplantation Professionals Sketchbook
    that they were replacing themselves The first false building block he used in 1945 was closely related to thymine one of four chemical roots that make up DNA This was the key discovery from which everything else stems he said In 1956 he helped synthesize trimethorpim one of the active ingredients in Septra an antibacterial medication that is effective against meningitis the blood disorder septicemia and other bacterial infections Scientists have estimated that Dr Hitchings work including the development of drugs like Imuran which blocks the immune response that triggers rejection of foreign tissues making organ transplants possible has saved more than a million lives His greatest joy was meeting people whose lives were saved by his medicine said his son Thomas Across the planet he met people who had been saved by his work People married with children The idea of this made him weep The son of a ship builder George Herbert Hitchings was born on April 18 1905 in Hoquiam Wash He received bachelor s and master s degrees in chemistry at the University of Washington and a doctorate in biochemistry at Harvard in 1933 He authored or co authored more than 300 published papers and was responsible for 89 United States patents He was also involved in charitable organizations serving as president of the Burroughs Wellcome Fund which supports academic research and the Red Cross Source Written by Charlie LeDuff lightly edited by Dr Roger W Evans http www nytimes com 1998 03 01 nyregion dr george h hitchings 92 won nobel prize in medicine html Pesonal Recollections I never met Dr Hitchings but I was a graduate student in sociology at Duke University in Durham North Carolina from September 1976 through June 1979 At the time I was admitted I did not receive any form of financial assistance from Duke University As a result I took out a student loan and began to look for a job even before I arrived in Durham I was told Dr Jay R Williams at the Research Triangle Institute RTI now RTI International in Research Triangle Park North Carolina may be in need of a research assistant or that he might be able to help me find a position At the time I was interested in kidney dialysis as a treatment modality for end stage renal disease I knew RTI had a contract to maintain what was then called the National Dialysis Registry which was directed by Dr Fred Bryan whom I contacted concerning employment Dr Bryan informed me that RTI had submitted a contract proposal to what was then called the Health Care Financing Administration HCFA now known as the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services or CMS to conduct a study to determine if a dialysis paid aide program would encourage dialysis patients to dialyze at home as opposed to a center Center dialysis was generally considered to be more expensive than home dialysis It was felt that by paying for an aide more in center patients would opt for home dialysis and that even with a paid aide the cost of home dialysis would still be lower than in center dialysis When I arrived in Durham I met with Dr Fred Bryan and Dr Lynn Guess who would be working on the study if RTI were awarded the contract Dr Williams also participated in the meeting Fortunately RTI was awarded the contract by HCFA and Dr Bryan offered me employment as a Health Systems Analyst I then worked at RTI for the three years I was at Duke I actually used the data collected during the paid aide experiment for my doctoral dissertation which was funded by what was then known as the National Center for Health Services Research My personal link to Dr George H Hitchings is nothing more than physical location The RTI campus was is directly across from what was then called the Burroughs Welcome Co headquarters building an iconic building which is where Dr Hitchings and Ms Gertrude B Elion conducted their research In 1988 the headquarters building was renamed the Elion Hitchings Building It has since been sold to United Therapeutics Strangely this means I spent my graduate years at Duke working in close physical proximity to Dr Hitchings and Ms Elion Olga Jonasson Olga Jonasson 1934 2006 Field Transplant Surgery Contributions Dr Olga Jonasson was a pioneer in transplant medicine and surgery but also as a leader mentor teacher and the first woman transplant surgeon The collection of representations and images of Olga Jonasson can be viewed most coherently in the context of a revolution a liberation movement in which she was at the forefront Dr Jonasson was a pioneer in transplant surgery her contributions to the practice of medicine spanned more than 40 years As a very humble person who disliked being lauded she would not have acknowledged the comments offered by her many friends colleagues former students neighbors fellow parishioners and peers in response to her death comments such as smart intimidating kind tough a luminary respectful larger than life compassionate principled supportive direct loyal generous unforgettable Diminutive would not befit Olga or OJ as those who had the great fortune to be among her colleagues affectionately called her In both stature and personality she was indeed a grand woman Born in Peoria Dr Jonasson moved with her family to Chicago where her father was a Lutheran minister and her mother was a nurse When her family moved on later to Connecticut Olga stayed in Chicago to begin her studies at Northwestern University she was 16 She attended medical school and did her surgical residency at the University of Illinois After her residency she became a postdoctoral Fellow under the guidance of Dr Elmer Becker at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research in Washington D C and followed with a clinical and research Fellowship at Massachusetts General Hospital under the direction of Dr Henry J Winn and Dr Paul S Russell She also completed a Fellowship in cardiovascular and thoracic surgery in Chicago She became one in the tiny community of women surgeons at a time when few had known or heard of any and male patients and colleagues often dismissed them By taking the inevitable hits and doing so unflinchingly Olga made it easier for all those women who followed as well as for others who had been arbitrarily excluded from a surgical career because of equally irrelevant ethnic reasons At the time Dr Jonasson was certified by the ABS in 1965 she was only the 37th woman certified while the number of men certified to that date exceeded 14 000 She was well on the way to becoming a leader who would change forever the demography of medicine and specifically the specialty of surgery She became the first woman transplant surgeon established the division of transplantation at UIC in 1968 performed the first kidney transplant in Illinois in the same year and was a founding member of the National Tissue Typing and Histocompatibility Organization in 1974 In 1976 she became the first woman member of the Board of Regents at the American College of Surgery A year later she was named chief of surgery at Cook County Hospital In 1987 she left Chicago for Ohio State University where she became the first woman in the country to lead an academic surgery department at a co educational medical school For her outstanding mentorship of minority surgeons Dr Jonasson was named honorary member of the American College of Black Academic Surgeons In 1988 she was inducted as an honorary Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons of England Thereafter she became the Chief of Surgical Education and Research at the American College of Surgeons where she initiated multi center clinical trials on the topics of inguinal hernia repair and surgical quality of care garnering in excess of 13 million of research funds She continued to work as Education Editor of the Journal of the American College of Surgeons until her death She was featured at a recent exhibit at the National Institutes of Health s National Library of Medicine profiling groundbreaking female doctors No one would suggest that Olga Jonasson s body of work was remarkable for a woman It was simply remarkable by anyone s standard That in fact is the only praise Olga would want or would accept One of her toughest jobs resulted from the passage by Congress in 1983 of the National Organ Transplant Act Olga subsequently was named Chairperson of a task force that held meetings and hearings to determine how this complex legislation could be enacted and enforced As a policy instrument she was the lightning rod to which wildly disparate points of view ugly protests and bitter criticisms of the law itself were directed She presided over her task force with dignity and always with intelligence and firmness Olga could not be swayed by false arguments She had an uncanny ability to identify people who were lying or were out for personal gain After it was all over many people took credit for the resulting American transplant system that quickly became an object of national pride and a world wide standard The one individual who never claimed any kind of personal credit was Olga Jonasson Yet we all knew that nothing could have been accomplished without the presence of this magnificent leader Dr Jonasson s life long quest for knowledge set the bar for all who followed She rigorously provided several levels of peer review in study sections editorial boards and surgical societies Having meticulously researched her opinion she frequently provided formidable mental sparring Dr Jonasson was generous with her knowledge and served as confidant and advisor to many nationwide she enjoyed helping careers behind the scenes with the beneficiaries frequently unaware of her assistance An inspiring teacher Dr Jonasson was renowned for her lively and rigorous student resident teaching rounds This commitment to excellence in teaching was acknowledged numerous times as the 1971 Outstanding Educator in America Award and with several Golden Apple Awards The Chief s club a three decade long monthly tradition of dinner for chief residents held in her home was prized and feared for the after dinner Socratic grilling by an invited expert She opened her heart and her home to furnish newly emerging surgeons with the art and critical thinking needed in excellent surgical practice There is no way to know the frustration despair and ultimately the exhilaration and redemption of a unique individual like Olga Jonasson who was willing to give so much for her noble causes In winning these battles she taught those around her how to maintain the humanity often lost by people under perpetual siege When asked why she chose surgery she responded the act of actually intervening in someone s suffering was a prime motivation Giving to others and responding to their needs were strong family values that influenced all aspects of her life Known among her friends colleagues neighbors and students for her gracious hospitality she quietly dedicated her personal time to causes and communities that were important to her When the Church of the Epiphany was in desperate need of repairs to address safety hazards and deterioration nearly single handedly Dr Jonasson raised almost 3 million and gave hundreds of volunteer hours herself With the passing of Olga Jonasson the world lost not only a pioneer in transplant medicine but also a dedicated leader a renowned mentor a remarkable teacher a good friend and a most generous soul In the ways she lived her life personally and professionally she set an admirable example and made a place for those men and women alike who followed in surgery While her accomplishments and honors denote contributions to the practice of medicine most importantly they advanced the care of surgical patients Truly she cared for everyone Source Bartholomew A Ascher N and Starzl T 2007 TRIBUTE Dr Olga Jonasson Born in Peoria Illinois August 12 1934 Died in Chicago Illinois August 30 2006 American Journal of Transplantation 7 1882 1883 doi 10 1111 j 1600 6143 2007 01872 x Link to the original source http onlinelibrary wiley com doi 10 1111 j 1600 6143 2007 01872 x full Pesonal Recollections My personal reflections will be added at a later date Samuel L Kountz Jr Samuel L Kountz Jr 1930 1981 Field Transplant Surgery Contributions Dr Samuel L Kountz was an international leader in transplant surgery who tragically died at age 51 In 1977 following a trip to South Africa as a visiting professor he became ill The illness was never diagnosed However he remained brain damaged the remainder of his life and had to be cared for at home Occasionally he was able to sit up in bed and he apparently recognized certain things but he was unable to speak He responded emotionally with tears or laughter and sometimes he recognized people At the time he fell ill he had been head of surgery at the Downstate Medical Center in Brooklyn for five years and had performed 500 kidney transplants then believed to be the most in the world He was also chief of general surgery at Kings County Hospital Center Dr Kountz previously was associated with the University of California School of Medicine in San Francisco where he helped advance the techniques in transplanting kidneys He had a deep social drive beyond his scientific interest in advancing transplant surgery He told friends that an important reason why he moved to Brooklyn was to improve medical care for the black community He once sat in the emergency room of Kings County Hospital to see how patients were treated Dr Kountz s interest in medicine stemmed from an incident when he was a young boy in Lexa Ark where he was born He accompanied an injured friend to the local hospital Moved by the ability of doctors to ease the friend s suffering he decided to become a physician His father a Baptist minister and his grandmother who had been born into slavery encouraged him In 1952 he graduated third in his class at the Agricultural Mechanical and Normal College of Arkansas now University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff Dr Kountz went on to graduate school at the University of Arkansas where he earned a master s degree in chemistry He told friends that when he was a graduate student he met Senator J W Fulbright who advised him to apply for a scholarship to medical school He won it on a competitive basis and became the first black to enter the University of Arkansas Medical School at Little Rock Dr Kountz interned at San Francisco General Hospital and then spent seven years in surgical training at the Stanford Medical Center While there he did animal experiments on kidney transplantation and immunology Dr Kountz discovered that large doses of a drug called methylprednisolone could help reverse the acute rejection of a transplanted kidney That steroid drug was used for many years in the standard management of kidney transplant patients Other researchers took advantage of Dr Kountz s observations and used similar large doses of methylprednisolone in the treatment of many other conditions When he moved to the University of California in 1967 he worked with other researchers to develop the prototype of a machine that now is able to preserve kidneys for up to 50 hours from the time they are removed from a donor s body The machine is used worldwide and is named the Belzer kidney perfusion machine in honor of Dr Kuntz s partner Dr Folkert O Belzer At the University of California at San Francisco and at Downstate Medical Center Dr Kountz and his colleagues advanced tissue typing tests to improve the results of kidney transplantation One of his major efforts was to help persuade the public to donate kidneys and other organs to help save the lives of others Source Written by Lawrence K Altman lightly edited by Dr Roger W Evans Link to original source http www nytimes com 1981 12 24 obituaries dr samuel kountz 51 dies leader in transplant surgery html Pesonal Recollections I completed my graduate studies in sociology at Duke University in 1979 In September 1979 I accepted a Research Scientist position at the Battelle Human Affairs Research Centers in Seattle Washington my first position out of graduate school My wife and I relocated to Seattle in November 1979 just before Thanksgiving My primary research interest at that time was the treatment of end stage renal disease ESRD Upon arriving at Battelle I immediately set to work on a research proposal to conduct a multi center study comparing the outcomes of ESRD patients who were on one of four treatment modalities in center hemodialysis home hemodialysis peritoneal dialysis and kidney transplantation The proposal was eventually submitted to the Health Care Financing Administration now the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services One of my primary considerations in taking the position at Battelle was an opportunity to work with Dr Christopher R Blagg who was Director of the Northwest Kidney Center I had gotten to know Dr Blagg while I was working as a Health Systems Analyst at the Research Triangle Institute in Research Triangle Park North Carolina 1976 79 At the time we arrived in Seattle the Northwest Kidney Center was essentially the mecca for home hemodialysis which was then considered a less expensive treatment option than in center hemodialysis In addition it was felt that home hemodialysis patients had a better quality of life than in center hemodialysis patients People from around the world were coming to Seattle to gain firsthand experience with the program at the Northwest Kidney Center It was at this time that I also met Dr Belding H Scribner and Dr Thomas L Marchioro Dr Scribner invented the Scribner shunt which essentially made maintenance hemodialysis a clinical reality Dr Marchioro was a transplant surgeon who before moving to the University of Washington was a member of the all star transplant team led by Dr Thomas E Starzl at the University of Colorado in Denver Drs Blagg and Marchioro were directly involved in the preparation of my research proposal which wasn t funded the first time it was submitted However Mr Carl Josephson at the Health Care Financing Administration encouraged us to pare down the proposal and resubmit We did so and what became known as the National Kidney Dialysis and Kidney Transplantation Study was funded This was my first direct exposure to kidney transplantation At the time kidney transplant surgeons felt that kidney transplantation was more cost effective than any kidney dialysis modality Kidney transplant recipients provided the transplant was successful had a superior quality of life thought to be even better than that of home hemodialysis patients However people were still concerned about costs and outcomes when a kidney transplant failed During my graduate school training I had visited many dialysis centers and spent time with home hemodialysis patients while they were dialyzing I had never seen a kidney transplant performed I asked Dr Marchioro if this was possible He said it was and I eventually joined him in the operating room to actually view a living donor kidney transplant Undoubtedly it was during one of my many meetings with Dr Marchioro that I learned about the tragedy that had befallen Dr Samuel L Kountz The kidney transplant community was and still is fairly close knit and I recall people were greatly saddened about Dr Kountz s dismal prognosis for an unidentifiable condition I first learned about Dr Kountz approximately three years after he became ill and was confined to his home On a positive note people have kept him in mind during the ensuing years Even today his name occasionally comes up at meetings Most people remain baffled as to the underlying cause of his eventual death Unfortunately I never had an opportunity to meet Dr Kountz but I have taken the time to better understand his contributions both as a transplant professional and as a person He was a remarkable man whose life was tragically cut short H M Lee H M Lee 1926 2013 Field Transplant Surgery Contributions H M Lee M D was an internationally renowned pioneer in organ transplantation and former professor and chairman in the Division of Vascular and Transplant Surgery at the Medical College of Virginia MCV which became the Virginia Commonwealth University VCU School of Medicine In the 1950s at MCV Lee was an integral member of one of only four transplant programs in the world He was a charter member and the 11th president of the American Society of Transplant Surgeons ASTS where he pushed for the passing of the National Organ Transplant Act and he helped found along with his mentor David Hume M D the organization that gave rise to the United Network for Organ Sharing or UNOS Lee was born on Oct 17 1926 in Korea He received his bachelor s degree at Keijo Imperial University in 1945 and his M D at Seoul National University Medical School in 1949 In 1959 Lee made his way to MCV and met Hume under whom Lee would study and work for more than a decade first as a resident then instructor assistant professor associate professor and finally professor In the late 1960s Lee helped Hume and Bernard Amos M D found the first regional organ sharing program in the United States SEROPP which later became the South Eastern Organ Procurement Foundation SEOPF SEOPF gave rise to UNOS a non profit organization that today manages the nation s organ transplant system under contract with the federal government In 1973 following Hume s death Lee became director of the Clinical Transplant Program professor and chairman of the Division of Vascular and Transplant Surgery and director of the Clinical Transplant Fellowship Program at VCU From 1984 1985 Lee was president of ASTS where he pushed for the signing into federal law of the National Organ Transplant Act which outlawed the sale of human organs and established the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network OPTN to maintain a national registry for organ matching allocation and distribution His term as ASTS president established rigorous ethical standards for transplant candidate listing and prioritization transplantation of foreign nationals and transplant surgeons minimum qualifications Under Lee s 20 year leadership the VCU Medical Center added liver pancreas and liver cell transplantation to its capabilities sustaining its reputation as an internationally renowned center for transplantation Until his retirement in 1997 Lee had the opportunity to mentor countless medical students residents and fellows just as Hume had mentored him While patient Lee had no desire to sit idly After his retirement he earned a law degree and practiced part time as a consultant Lee graduated at the age of 74 as the oldest graduate ever from the T C Williams School of Law at the University of Richmond On March 12 2002 the transplant center Lee directed for two decades which opened in 1964 and is now the oldest transplant unit in the United States was re designated and officially named The Hume Lee Transplant Center by the VCU Health System Board of Visitors Source Virginia Commonwealth University edited by Dr Roger W Evans Link to original source http news vcu edu article HM Lee Organ Transplant Pioneer Dies Pesonal Recollections I knew Dr H M Lee very well We were good friends and colleagues I always enjoyed talking to H M There was never a time when we didn t have something to discuss He understood what I did and always complimented me on the research I had done or was doing We worked closely together on the National Organ Transplant Act of 1984 I still recall where I got to know H M well We were Helsinki Finland in 1986 It was the Eleventh Congress of The Transplantation Society TTS We all had a great time The gala event at the conclusion of the meeting was held in a wonderful facility the name of which I don t recall It was all wood and on several levels having the feel of a log structure and a rustic retreat It was also at this TTS meeting that I spent time with my good friends including Dr Nancy L Ascher Dr Peter Stock Barbara Elick and Dr Goran Klintmalm One evening Nancy Peter Barb and I accompanied by a few other friends all went out to a discotheque in Helsinki Unannounced Goran Klintmalm showed up in red trousers and a green shirt or vice versa He looked as if he was dressed for a holiday event We all shared a laugh behind his back He had no idea we were making fun of him Dr John S Najarian eventually walked in and by the next morning when we were on our way back stateside we were all worst for the wear Eventually most of us who were on the same flight came around and a few of us even picked up where we left off the night before Needless to say Dr H M Lee wasn t in our company for any of the foregoing H M was usually quiet and subdued and certainly didn t have much to drink Georges Mathé Georges Mathé 1922 2010 Field Oncology Contributions In the morning of the atomic age there was optimism that the nuclear genie could heal as well as kill By the mid 1950s researchers had cured mice of leukemia by destroying diseased bone marrow with near lethal doses of radiation then rescuing them by transplanting healthy marrow But experiments on humans were stymied by fears that radiation exposure sufficient to kill the cancer might also kill the patient Then came the news that six physicists had become ill from radiation exposure during a 1958 nuclear reactor accident in Yugoslavia One physicist died from especially heavy exposure and one was relatively unaffected Dr Georges Mathé used the remaining four as guinea pigs in a radical experiment He injected bone marrow collected from donors to replace the damaged marrow Bone marrow is spongy tissue found inside bones that contains stem cells that produce the body s blood cells For the first time a human marrow transplant seemed to take and the physicists survived It was called the first successful bone marrow transplant not performed on identical twins In 1963 four years after treating the physicists Dr Mathé shook the medical world by announcing that he had cured a patient of leukemia by means of a bone marrow transplant In this case there was no doubt that he had performed the feat of obliterating the patient s stem cells and replacing them with a donor s the patient s blood type had changed to that of the donor the first time this had happened Most important he demonstrated that stem cells injected in a patient not only heal radiation damage but also fight cancer The reason is that the donor s cells rule the body of the patient whose own cells have been devastated and attack the cancer as a foreign invader The donor cells however can also attack the patient s healthy ones and vice versa Preventing these attacks has been a principal concern of transplant science The leukemia patient died after 20 months apparently of encephalitis Judgments vary on whether the patient s survival was long enough for Dr Mathé to declare success But Dr Brian Bolwell chief of hematology at the Cleveland Clinic said in an interview that Dr Mathé had proved an important principle You can cure an incurable leukemia patient In the process Dr Bolwell said Dr Mathé developed both a technique and an important term adoptive immunotherapy to describe how a person s own immune system can be used to combat cancer and other diseases It was quite a leap of scientific genius Dr Joseph H Antin chief of stem cell transplantation at the Dana Farber Cancer Institute in Boston said in an interview He s one of the original innovators Much of what we have accomplished can be linked back in a fairly direct way to the work that he did in the 1950s and 60s Dr Mathé worked at a time when original research on bone marrow transplants was percolating A leader was Dr E Donnall Thomas an American who in 1956 performed the first bone marrow transplant on a leukemia patient using marrow from an identical twin For years such twin transplants were the only ones that worked In 1969 Dr Thomas led the team that performed the first transplant between people matched by molecular analysis Dr A John Barrett while president of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation believed like Dr Antin that Dr Mathé should have shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Dr Thomas who received the award in 1990 It s always dangerous to say who was first Dr Barrett said of Dr Mathé in an interview but he was a leader he was an inspiration he was certainly ahead of his time Dr Barrett said Dr Mathé s insights helped lay the foundation for today s sophisticated versions of immunotherapy that direct specific molecules to specific molecular targets Transplants of stem cells have given way in many cases to removing stem cells from the patient or a donor modifying them in a test tube then putting them in the patient to fight cancer Georges Mathé was born on July 9 1922 in Nièvre France earned his medical degree from the University of Paris and fought with the Resistance against the Nazis in World War II He was arrested and sent to a concentration camp in Poland in a cattle car but the war ended shortly after he arrived In 1951 he worked for a year at the Sloan Kettering Institute in Manhattan where he said he became skeptical of overreliance on chemotherapy He became chief of hematology at Institut Gustave Roussy in Villejuif in 1961 and in 1964 founded the Institute of Cancer and Immunogenetics in Paris where he was director He was also founder and president of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer president of the European Society for Medical Oncology and a fellow of the Royal Society of Medicine and the New York Academy of Sciences Early in his career Dr Mathé contracted hepatitis B and spent two years in a hospital bed The memory motivated him to visit his patients at the end of each day in the lab In a 1974 interview with New Scientist he explained Experiencing suffering is necessary to be a complete doctor Source Written by Douglas Martin and lightly edited by Dr Roger W Evans http www nytimes com 2010 10 21 health research 21mathe html r 0 Pesonal Recollections Unfortunately I never met Dr Georges Mathé and therefore I have no personal recollections to offer However as noted above some people feel Dr Mathé should have shared the 1990 Nobel Prize with my good friend and former colleague Dr E Donnall Thomas However as is often the case frequently there is controversy surrounding the selection of Nobel Prize laureates For example there are many people who believe Dr Thomas E Starzl is worthy of the Nobel Prize yet he has never received the award In fact there are many people who are convinced that Dr Starzl instead of Dr Joseph E Murray should have shared the 1990 Nobel Prize with Dr Thomas Unfortunately like Dr Mathé Dr Starzl may never be awarded the Nobel Prize As a footnote the Georges Mathé Award was launched in March 2010 by the Institut du Cancer et d Immunogénétique ICIG to promote the therapeutic innovations and translational research initiated by Professor Georges Mathé This annual distinction rewards a young researcher who has demonstrated audacity and originality in his her work on the development of experimental and therapeutic research in the fields of cancer and immunology In addition the European Society for Medical Oncology ESMO inaugurated the Georges Mathé Translational Research Fellowship in 2012 This Fellowship provides intuitive medical oncology researchers the opportunity to receive training in translational research in an European centre of excellence in medicine and therapeutic innovation in the field of oncology and cancer immunology Sir Peter B Medawar Sir Peter B Medawar 1915 1987 Field Immunology Biology Contributions In 1960 when he received the Nobel Prize Dr Peter B Medawar s contributions were described as follows Medawar s earlier research done at Oxford was on tissue culture the regeneration of peripheral nerves and the mathematical analysis of the changes of shape of organisms that occur during this development During the early stages of the Second World War he was asked by the Medical Research Council to investigate why it is that skin taken from one human being will not form a permanent graft on the skin of another person and this work enabled him to establish theorems of transplantation immunity which formed the basis of his further work on this subject When he moved to Birmingham in 1947 he continued to work on it in collaboration with R Billingham and together they studied there problems of pigmentation and skin grafting in cattle and the use of skin grafting to distinguish between monozygotic and dizygotic twins in cattle In this work they took into consideration the work of R D Owen and concluded that the phenomenon that they called actively acquired tolerance of homografts could be artificially reproduced For this earlier work on transplantation and growth Medawar was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society London When he moved to London in 1951 Medawar continued to work with R Billingham and L Brent on this phenomenon of tolerance and his detailed analysis of it occupied him for several years He also carried out other researches into transplantation immunity Sir Peter B Medawar received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1960 which he shared with Sir Frank Macfarlane Burnet They were awarded the Nobel Prize for discovery of acquired immunological tolerance Dr Medawar was knighted in 1965 and in 1981 he received the Order of Merit the most prestigious of all royal honors Pesonal Recollections I never met Sir Peter Medawar The reasons are clear As described in his obituary published by The London Times in 1969 Sir Peter Medawar suffered a grievous blow He was then President of the British Science Association which was meeting in Exeter and while reading the lesson during the Sunday service in the cathedral he suffered a brain hemorrhage that left him seriously handicapped for the remainder of his life He relinquished his post as director of the National Institute of Medical Research in 1971 and died in 1987 at age 72 Joseph E Murray Joseph E Murray 1919 2012 Field Transplantation Immunology Kidney Transplantation Contributions On December 23 1954 Dr Joseph Murray performed the world s first successful renal transplant between identical twins at the Peter Bent Brigham Hospital now Brigham and Women s Hospital In 1959 he performed the first successful transplant to a non identical recipient and in 1962 the first using a deceased donor cadaver kidney Dr Murray received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1990 which he shared with Dr E Donnall Thomas They were awarded the Nobel Prize for their discoveries concerning organ and cell transplantation in the treatment of human disease Pesonal Recollections I met Dr Murray many years ago It was shortly after he received the Nobel Prize I believe it was in Boston at the American Transplant Congress I did not know Dr Murray well enough to call him a friend He was essentially an acquaintance However at a very early point in my career 1974 I became intimately familiar with his work and the impact it had on transplantation I was a graduate student at Eastern Michigan University 1974 76 At the time I was interested in quality of life and suicide amongst

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    postal address and name From time to time we automatically collect certain non personally identifiable information when you visit a UNRTP Web site such as the IP address of your computer the time and date of your visit the pages that you access and the number of times you return to the Web site This information is not used to identify you but is used in the aggregate for the UNRTP s internal marketing and similar purposes This process may involve the automatic placement of a small removable text file commonly referred to as a cookie on your computer s hard drive How We Use the Personally Identifiable Information We Collect We may use the personally identifiable information we collect to provide the services associated with placing transplant professionals We may also use the information to communicate with you from time to time on topics that we believe may be of interest to you You must notify us of any changes in your personal information or request that such information be removed from our records by e mail to Evans Roger Charter net Please be aware however that if you choose to have your personally identifiable information removed from our records you will no longer be able to receive certain updated information from us participate in various functions of the UNRTP Web sites or receive the services provided by UNRTP TransplantProfessionals com LLC We may disclose information about you to third parties if we have a good faith belief that we are required to do so by law or legal process to respond to legal claims or to protect the rights property or safety of the UNRTP or others Children s Issues No UNRTP Web site is directed to children under 13 years of age and children under 13 years

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  • About the Images Used on the UNRTP Website
    a graphic design artist who resides in Rochester Minnesota Greg has been painting murals and doing graphic art in and around Rochester since the early nineties Businesses and communities outside of Rochester including Denver Colorado Rapid City and Huron South Dakota and Marshall and Austin Minnesota have also commissioned his work Greg s work captures the essence of what we intend to convey 2016 TransplantProfessionals com LLC All rights reserved

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  • UNRTP Member Login
    rights reserved Web design and development by Bearing the Light LLC Terms of Use Privacy Policy Images LOGIN Who We Are About Dr Roger W Evans Our Approach Our Expertise Why Us Distinction Exclusivity and Commitment Professional Memberships Publications Presentations No Ad Policy Individuals Fellows and Trainees Established Transplant Professionals Priority Referral Program Organizations Transplant Centers Organ and Tissue Procurement Organizations Pharmaceutical Firms Device Manufacturers Search Types Recruitment Anomalies Common

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  • About Dr. Roger W. Evans
    marrow transplantation and various medications required by both transplant recipients and patients awaiting transplant He is considered a pioneer when it comes to the economics of transplantation the outcomes of transplant patients and organ and tissue donation and procurement Dr Evans has been a member of the Board of Directors for the United Network for Organ Sharing the National Marrow Donor Program and the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation He is currently a member of the Public Policy Committee for the American Society of Transplantation and a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science Dr Evans was previously a Senior Research Associate at the Battelle Seattle Research Center 1979 1992 was on the faculty at the University of Washington 1980 1992 and was Head of the Section of Health Services Evaluation at the Mayo Clinic Rochester from 1992 through 1999 Thereafter he created an independent health care consultancy and subsequently the United Network for the Recruitment of Transplantation Professionals UNRTP In 2010 Dr Evans received the Distinguished Service Award from the American Society of Transplantation for his contributions to the field of transplantation Dr Evans has published over 200 papers and has made more than

    Original URL path: http://transplantprofessionals.com/about/page.php?pageID=14 (2016-04-29)
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