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  • ap-1-10-01
    TWA 1939 Movie mogul Howard Hughes acquires control of TWA Feb 5 1946 TWA begins trans Atlantic service with flight ending in Paris Later that year TWA adds service to Rome Athens Cairo Lisbon and Madrid 1950 TWA officially become Trans World Airlines 1954 TWA starts relocating executive offices to New York while training maintenance and engineering offices remain in Kansas City Jan 3 1957 TWA is the first airline to offer passengers freshly brewed coffee in flight July 19 1961 TWA shows its first in flight movie By Love Possessed starring Lana Turner May 3 1965 Hughes sells his position in TWA more than 6 million shares worth 546 5 million April 6 1967 TWA becomes the first U S airline to go all jet Feb 25 1970 TWA becomes first airline to fly the Boeing 747 on a domestic route with service between Los Angeles and New York Jan 1 1979 Trans World Corp is formed with subsidiaries including Trans World Airlines Canteen Corp Hilton International Spartan Food Service and Century 21 Real Estate November 1983 Trans World Airlines becomes separate public company June 14 1985 Shiite gunmen seize a TWA airliner and force it to Beirut Lebanon A U S Navy diver was killed and 39 Americans held hostage for 17 days Sept 26 1985 Carl Icahn acquires control of TWA Oct 26 1986 TWA acquires Ozark Airlines and merges Ozark into TWA s operations Sept 7 1988 Carl Icahn takes the company private at a cost of 610 3 million Icahn receives 469 million The deal adds 539 7 million to TWA s debt 1989 Icahn moves TWA headquarters to Mt Kisco N Y July 1 1991 Icahn sells TWA routes from New York Los Angeles Boston and Chicago to London to American Airlines Jan 31

    Original URL path: http://twa800.com/news/ap-1-10-01.htm (2016-02-13)
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  • reuters-1-10-01
    its flights into a transit service for the masses TWA was the first airliner to introduce air hostesses non smoking sections freshly brewed coffee and in flight entertainment with radio in the 1930s and movies in 1961 Along the way the airline saw tragedy too from the TWA Super Constellation that collided with a United Airlines DC 8 over New York City in 1960 killing 134 people to the ill fated Flight 800 jumbo that exploded and crashed in the Atlantic off Long Island with the loss of 230 people in 1996 And for many the photo of a pilot with a hijacker s gun at his head in the cockpit of a TWA airliner at Beirut International Airport in 1985 is still a searing image of terrorism TWA was the first with air cargo service the first with white gloved uniformed air hostesses and passengers were given crude radio headsets in 1940 Lana Turner s By Love Possessed premiered as the in flight movie in 1961 But now TWA affectionately known as Try Walking Across to many passengers and aircrews is about to follow Pan Am and Eastern into the annals of aviation history In three quarters of a century TWA saw its share of ups and downs though it hit turbulence in recent years It went into a financial tailspin with airline deregulation in 1978 Corporate raider Carl Icahn acquired control in 1985 and three years later took the company private TWA has not made a profit for 12 years twice previously filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection and has 100 million in debt that starts to come due next week It s a far cry from the early days of aviation when a small company called Western Air Express was incorporated in July 1925 and two years

    Original URL path: http://twa800.com/news/reuters-1-10-01.htm (2016-02-13)
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  • reuters-1-10-01a
    Entertainer Bob Hope is a frequent TWA flier and his spokesman Ward Grant said he believed Hope took some TWA flights during World War II to visit America s fighting men Under the 25 year ownership of multimillionaire Howard Hughes the airline ushered in many firsts including trans Atlantic flights with sleepers and turned air travel from a luxury for the few Hollywood stars like Gregory Peck promoted its flights into a transit service for the masses TWA was the first airliner to introduce air hostesses non smoking sections freshly brewed coffee and in flight entertainment with radio in the 1930s and movies in 1961 Along the way the airline saw tragedy too from the TWA Super Constellation that collided with a United Airlines DC 8 over New York City in 1960 killing 134 people to the ill fated Flight 800 jumbo that exploded and crashed in the Atlantic off Long Island with the loss of 230 people in 1996 And for many the photo of a pilot with a hijacker s gun at his head in the cockpit of a TWA airliner at Beirut International Airport in 1985 is still a searing image of terrorism TWA was the first with air cargo service the first with white gloved uniformed air hostesses and passengers were given crude radio headsets in 1940 Lana Turner s By Love Possessed premiered as the in flight movie in 1961 But now TWA affectionately known as Try Walking Across to many passengers and aircrews is about to follow Pan Am and Eastern into the annals of aviation history In three quarters of a century TWA saw its share of ups and downs though it hit turbulence in recent years It went into a financial tailspin with airline deregulation in 1978 Corporate raider Carl Icahn acquired

    Original URL path: http://twa800.com/news/reuters-1-10-01a.htm (2016-02-13)
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  • nyt-1-14-01
    companies in the Arab world Mr bin Laden seemed no different from the other Arab volunteers who were starting to arrive in Pakistan Mr Anas recalled The conversation turned to how the volunteers could help the Afghans win their jihad and teach them more about Islam The Soviet forces had a considerable advantage in the Afghan conflict Their helicopter gunships controlled the air and their troops held the main roads But the rebels had powerful friends The United States and Saudi Arabia were spending millions funneling arms to the Afghans through Pakistan s intelligence service Mr Anas began by teaching the Koran to the Afghan rebels who did not speak Arabic and learned the verses by rote He also led prayers at a guest house set up in Pakistan for Arab volunteers At the time he said there were no more than a few dozen Arabs in the country working with the rebels None spoke the Afghan languages After a few months Mr Anas said he trekked into Afghanistan to join a combat unit one of three Arabs traveling with a caravan of 600 Afghan soldiers He learned Farsi and took on the role of mediator traveling among the feuding rebel camps He spent most of each year inside Afghanistan Mr Anas became a top aide to Commander Ahmed Shah Massoud whose troops controlled northern Afghanistan and are now fighting the Taliban rulers who support Mr bin Laden Like many Muslims who joined the rebels Mr Anas expected to die in the Afghan jihad and earn the special status designated in the Koran for martyrs which includes forgiveness of sins and the enjoyment in Paradise of beautiful virgins It s not the main idea to be a shahid or martyr he said But it s part of my plan In the mid 1980 s American and Middle Eastern intelligence officials say Mr bin Laden moved to Peshawar a Pakistani city near the border with Afghanistan The city was a staging ground for the war against the Soviets American French and Pakistani intelligence officers intrigued and competed there to manipulate the Afghan cause to their countries advantage Mr bin Laden s fortune of several hundred million dollars gained him immediate popularity He was one of the guys who came to jihad in Afghanistan Mr Anas said But unlike the others what he had was a lot of money He s not very sophisticated politically or organizationally But he s an activist with great imagination He ate very little He slept very little Very generous He d give you his clothes He d give you his money Mr Anas who returned annually to Pakistan from the Afghan battlefields to visit with Mr Azzam said Mr bin Laden at first slept in the guest house in Peshawar on a cushion on the floor He recalled that Mr Azzam liked to say You see this man has everything in his country You see he lives with all the poor people in this room At about this time in 1984 Mr Azzam set up the organization that would play a pivotal role in the global jihad over the next decade It was called the Makhtab al Khadimat the Office of Services and its goal was to recruit and train Muslim volunteers for the Afghan fronts Mr Azzam raised money for the organization in countries overseas including the United States and gave impassioned speeches promoting the Afghan cause Mr bin Laden embraced the idea from its inception and became Mr Azzam s partner providing financial support and handling military affairs Mr bin Laden worked best with small groups Mr Anas said When you sit with Osama you don t want to leave the meeting he said You wish to continue talking to him because he is very calm very fluent A main goal of the Office of Services Mr Anas said was to prevent the increasing number of outside volunteers from taking sides in the rebels factional struggles We are in Afghanistan to help the jihad and all the Afghan people Mr Azzam told him But there was increasing frustration from many of the disaffected young Muslims over Mr Azzam s insistence that the Office of Services support only the Afghan cause when many were agitated about the plight of their own homelands Some approached Mr bin Laden They told him You shouldn t be staying with Abdullah Azzam He doesn t do anything about the regimes Saudi Egyptian Algerian He s just talking about Afghanistan Mr Anas said These people are always saying to Osama You should establish something Have a clear idea to use these people after Afghanistan for other wars Among those most ardently courting Mr bin Laden was a group of Egyptian radicals called the Egyptian Islamic Jihad which helped assassinate President Anwar el Sadat in 1981 The Egyptian group advocated the overthrow of governments by terrorism and violence and one of its key figures Ayman al Zawahiri had taken shelter in Afghanistan Mr Anas said and Western intelligence agencies agree that Dr Zawahiri was a commanding early influence on Mr bin Laden Today he is part of Al Qaeda s leadership according to intelligence officials But Mr Azzam quarreled bitterly with the Egyptians Mr Anas said he once witnessed a heated argument between Mr Azzam and Sheik Omar Abdel Rahman a radical religious scholar who argued that the flouting of Islamic law had turned Presidents Mohammed Zia ul Haq of Pakistan and Hosni Mubarak of Egypt into infidels who could therefore be killed Sheik Abdel Rahman later moved to Brooklyn where he was associated with an Office of Services branch In 1995 he was convicted of plotting to blow up New York landmarks In 1986 according to Mr Anas and Middle Eastern intelligence officials Mr bin Laden began to chart a separate course He established his own training camp for Persian Gulf Arabs a group of about 50 who lived in tents set apart from the other Afghan fighters He called the camp Al Masadah The Lion s Den Within little more than a year the movement divided as Mr bin Laden and the Egyptians founded Al Qaeda the base for what they hoped would be a global crusade Mr Anas said Mr Azzam confided to him that Egyptian ideologues had wooed Mr bin Laden away gaining access to his money He told me one time I m very upset about Osama This heaven sent man like an angel I am worried about his future if he stays with these people The differences between Mr Azzam and Mr bin Laden were largely tactical Mr Anas said noting that the two men remained friends A committed enemy of Israel Mr Azzam believed the Arab warriors should focus on creating an Islamic state in Afghanistan a process that could take decades Mr bin Laden according to Mr Anas came to believe that such a war could be fought in many countries simultaneously The arguments were very secret Mr Anas said Only three to four people knew about them at the time Mr Azzam saw little difference between the United States and the Soviet Union contending in his articles and speeches that both were hostile to Islam But Mr Azzam opposed terrorism against the West Mr Anas said By the late 1980 s Peshawar had become a magnet for disaffected young Muslims who shared Mr bin Laden s views Ten people would open a guest house and start issuing fatwas Mr Anas recalled We are going to make revolution in Jordan in Egypt in Syria And they haven t got any contact with the real jihad in Afghanistan The tide of the Afghan war was turning Stinger missiles provided through the American covert program had forced Soviet aircraft to fly far above the battlefields Afghanistan had become Moscow s Vietnam By February 1989 the Soviets had withdrawn A C I A official said that the agency aware of the changing nature of the jihad had taken some steps he would not specify to counter the threat But Milt Bearden the former C I A station chief in Islamabad who coordinated the agency s anti Soviet effort in Afghanistan disagreed The Soviet Union armed to the teeth was falling apart he said A shooting war then erupted in the Persian Gulf Afghanistan was off the front burner When the war ended he said we got the hell out of there The Afghan rebels war continued first against the Soviet backed government and then within their own ranks On Nov 24 1989 Mr Azzam and two sons were killed by a car bomb in Peshawar as they drove to Friday Prayers The murders were never solved Mr Anas said he tried to take over leadership of the Office of Services According to the C I A the group split the extremist faction took control siding with Mr bin Laden They loved the ideas of Osama and the person of Abdullah Azzam Mr Anas said wistfully They don t love me The Base From Many Lands Under One Banner Fired by their triumph over the Soviets the Arabs who had fought in Afghanistan returned home eager to apply the principles of jihad to their native lands The Koran sets strict limits on when and how holy war is to be undertaken But Gilles Kepel a leading French scholar of contemporary Islam said the Afghan veterans were guided by their own radical interpretation of sacred Muslim texts Intoxicated by the Muslim victory in Afghanistan he said they believed that it could be replicated elsewhere that the whole world was ripe for jihad which is contrary to Islamic tradition They called themselves the Arab Afghans In Jordan some founded a group Jaish Muhammad that officials say took aim at King Hussein whose family claims descent from the Prophet Muhammad In Algeria the Arab Afghans were among the founders of the Armed Islamic Group the most radical to emerge after the military government canceled the 1991 elections Known by its French initials G I A it began by blowing up military targets and escalated to wholesale massacres of Algerians who did not believe in the jihad According to Mr Anas one of its founding members was an Algerian who had initially fought with him in Afghanistan but joined Al Qaeda in the late 1980 s Mr Anas says he has been told that Mr bin Laden provided some of the seed money for the G I A The early 1990 s proved difficult for Mr bin Laden He was enraged by King Fahd s decision to let American troops wage the Persian Gulf war from Saudi Arabia site of the two holiest shrines in Islam He began to focus his wrath on the United States and the Saudi government After the conflict ended he moved to Afghanistan But his stay was brief Within months he fled telling associates that Saudi Arabia had hired the Pakistani intelligence service to kill him There is no confirmation that such a plot existed Nonetheless in 1991 Mr bin Laden moved to Sudan where a militantly Islamic government had taken power Over the next five years Mr bin Laden built a group that combined legitimate business with support for world holy war He also set out to accomplish his overriding goal of gathering the leading Islamic extremist groups under one banner According to Middle Eastern officials Mr bin Laden and his envoys met with radicals from Pakistan and Egypt to propose an international Islamic front led by Afghan veterans that would fight Americans and Jews Al Qaeda began training its own operatives Ali Mohamed the government witness who has said he arranged Mr bin Laden s move to Sudan told investigators that he taught group members about weapons explosives kidnapping urban fighting counterintelligence and other tactics at camps in Afghanistan and Sudan He said he showed some of the trainees how to set up cells that could be used in operations The dispatch of American troops to Somalia in late 1992 and 1993 as part of a United Nations mission was another affront to Mr bin Laden The Bush administration presented it as a relief operation American officials say a defector from Al Qaeda told them it viewed the deployment as a dangerous expansion of American influence in the region and a step toward undermining the Islamic government of Sudan Al Qaeda privately issued fatwas that directed members to attack American soldiers in Saudi Arabia Yemen and the Horn of Africa according to American prosecutors They said he also sent his military chief an Egyptian who had been with him at the formation of Al Qaeda to find the vulnerabilities of United Nations forces in Africa Al Qaeda created a cell in Kenya as a gateway to its operations in Somalia the prosecutors assert Members of the group blended into Kenyan society opening legitimate businesses that sold fish and dealt in diamonds and operating an Islamic charity Federal prosecutors say at least five group members crossed the border to Somalia where they trained some of the fighters involved in an Oct 3 1993 battle with United States special forces that left 18 Americans and several hundred Somalis dead The battle one of the most widely publicized setbacks for American forces in recent memory cast a shadow over every subsequent Clinton administration debate on the possible uses of ground troops American intelligence did not learn of Al Qaeda s role in the ambush until several years later Prosecutors say the group also considered attacking Americans in Kenya to retaliate for the Somalia mission Mr Mohamed testified that Mr bin Laden sent him to Nairobi in late 1993 to look over possible American French British and Israeli targets for a bomb attack including the American Embassy He said he took photos drew diagrams and wrote a report which he delivered to his boss in Khartoum Bin Laden looked at the picture of the American Embassy and pointed to where a truck could go as a suicide bomber he said American prosecutors say Al Qaeda had more grandiose plans a leading member an Iraqi who Mr Anas said had first gravitated to Mr bin Laden in Afghanistan tried to buy enriched uranium in Europe The Iraqi Mahdouh Mahmud Salim forged links between Mr bin Laden s group and others supported by Iran Mr Salim met with an Iranian religious official in Khartoum and soon afterward the prosecutors say Al Qaeda members got training from Hezbollah the Iranian backed Shiite group in Lebanon skilled in making car bombs American officials said this alliance was notable because it marked the first time radicals from the minority Shiite branch of Islam collaborated with extremists from the dominant Sunni branch Mr bin Laden s business ventures in Sudan including a tannery a transportation company and a construction concern raised money and served as cover for the travels of Mr Salim and others according to American officials They said that his companies cornered Sudan s exports of gum sunflower and sesame products and that he invested 50 million of his family money in a new Islamic bank in Khartoum The Network As in Afghanistan So in the World The new jihad movement was fueled by the civil war that consumed Afghanistan in the early 1990 s The training camps that had once schooled soldiers to battle the Soviet enemy now attracted militants more interested in fomenting holy war back home in America Europe or the Middle East than in the struggle for control of Afghanistan The Office of Services the Pakistan based group founded in the 1980 s by Mr Azzam to recruit soldiers for the anti Soviet cause arranged the travels of some of these new jihadists according to European and American officials Many of those associated with the office Mr Anas said shared Mr bin Laden s vision of a global movement American officials suspect they were acting under his instructions though this remains a subject of debate among intelligence analysts American investigators stumbled across the first signs of the new global phenomenon in 1993 when they began to examine the bombing at the World Trade Center They discovered that the four men who carried out the attack which killed 6 and wounded more than 1 000 had ties to Sheik Omar Abdel Rahman whom they charged with leading a worldwide jihad organization that had begun plotting to kill Americans as early as 1989 Mr Abdel Rahman was later convicted of conspiring to blow up New York landmarks including the United Nations But in the years since American intelligence officials have come to believe that he and the World Trade Center bombers had ties to Al Qaeda The evidence is suggestive but not conclusive Several of those convicted in the World Trade Center case were associated with the Brooklyn refugee center that was a branch of the Office of Services the Pakistan based organization that Mr bin Laden helped finance and lead The Brooklyn center was headed for a time by Mustafa Shalabi an Egyptian murdered in 1991 in a case that remains unsolved Federal prosecutors recently disclosed that it was Mr Shalabi whom Mr bin Laden called in 1991 when he needed help moving to Sudan according to Mr Mohamed the federal witness One of the men convicted of bombing the World Trade Center Ahmad M Ajaj spent four months in Pakistan in 1992 returning to the United States with a bomb manual later seized by the United States government An English translation of the document entered into evidence in the World Trade Center trial said that the manual was dated 1982 that it had been published in Amman Jordan and that it carried a heading on the front and succeeding pages The Basic Rule Those appear to be errors Two separate translations of the document one done at the request of The New York Times show that the heading said Al Qaeda which translates as The Base the name

    Original URL path: http://twa800.com/news/nyt-1-14-01.htm (2016-02-13)
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  • reuters-1-17-01
    s center fuel tank a finding facilitated by the painstaking reconstruction of the wreckage That wreckage so critical in determining probable cause of the crash that killed 230 people in July 1996 is stored for 400 000 a year in a hangar in Long Island abandoned by the carrier and insurers and now the responsibility of the federal government But the National Transportation Safety Board NTSB has plans to make novel use of it as the centerpiece of a training academy set to break ground on Thursday in Virginia There was a tremendous amount of funds being spent for the housing of that wreckage NTSB Chairman Jim Hall said of the 93 foot section of reconstructed aircraft and boxes of other stored debris We took those funds and leveraged them into this new training academy Hall will preside over groundbreaking ceremonies on his last day at the safety board He was an activist chairman who presided over the TWA investigation and three other major air crash probes His permanent successor will be named by President elect George W Bush news web sites The multimillion dollar NTSB Academy will be built by George Washington University on its satellite campus in Ashburn Virginia The federal government will lease it for 20 years for 2 5 million per year The school s aviation institute which studies safety and security issues is located at the same site The NTSB facility is scheduled to open in 2003 and will include a two floor building with classrooms a lecture hall laboratories and office space Another building will house the TWA wreckage TWA is a very large and very complex system said NTSB project manager Robert Gilson It s a big vehicle and there are an awful lot of things we can use it for He and

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  • wp-1-17-01
    and served until 1973 under President Richard M Nixon With more than three years in office Tenet is also the longest serving director since William H Webster bridged the gap between the Reagan and Bush administrations and served a little over four years from 1987 to 1991 Bush s father the former president served as director of central intelligence for slightly less than a year at the tail end of the Ford administration He was disappointed that President Jimmy Carter did not ask him to stay on and believed that the director s post should have been depoliticized and taken out of the partisan transition cycle CIA headquarters was renamed the George Bush Center for Intelligence in honor of the former president in April 1999 Tenet threw a huge party for the former president at dedication time and later staged a major Cold War intelligence conference at the Bush School of Government and Public Service at Texas A M University Tenet s reappointment was opposed by some conservatives particularly Sen Richard C Shelby R Ala chairman of the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence who said last month that he thought Bush should have his own person there But Rep Porter

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  • ntsb-1-19-01
    representative to the International Civil Aviation Organization ICAO the United Nations body responsible for international civil aviation standards From 1988 to 1994 Carmody was a professional aviation staff member on the Senate Commerce Committee responsible for aviation legislation Carmody also spent 11 years with the Federal Aviation Administration including three years as deputy director for Congressional Services I look forward to serving the American people as Vice Chairman and expect

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  • NTSB's Missile Visibility Study, The Results
    detonation no yes yellow light no no un intelligible ds rsh 4 3 missile yes light went up into sky at high rate of speed small delay after burnout then a flash no yes light no no yes small boom after detonation bw cdh 4 3 missile yes small light emerged from behind trees traveled up into sky light disappeared after delay small flash above where other light disappeared no yes small light no no yes small boom about 20 to 30 seconds after flash bw dfr 6 3 missile yes white glow rising rapidly then detonation looked like an airplane but going straight up faster and had a wide flame no yes white flame no no no bh slr 6 3 missile yes white dot shooting up then disappeared for a second then a flash no yes white light no no no bh rdc 8 3 missile yes white dot going up into sky no yes white light no no no bh glc 8 3 missile yes small match straight up into air for 5 to 6 seconds pause for about 2 seconds then small flash no yes no no no jb dam 8 3 missile yes white light going up into sky no yes white light no no no jb mmb 10 3 missile yes yellow ball ascending through clouds then gap then brighter flare up yes dark gray or black straight line to inverted V no no no no jf prb 10 3 missile yes yellow light ascending through clouds then a gap in visibile light then a flash higher up no yes yellow light maybe no no jf tm 12 3 missile yes white light going up no yes white light no no no jf rtm 12 3 missile yes golden flame shooting straight up no yes golden flickering flame no no no dc jtm 12 3 missile yes pulsing orange flying straight up no yes pulsing orange no no no dc jac 2 4 control no ds jds 2 4 control yes strobe of incoming aircraft ds rsh 4 4 control no bw cdh 4 4 control no bw dfr 6 4 control no bh slr 6 4 control no bh rdc 8 4 control no bh glc 8 4 control yes just before interview saw something like firework or roman candle for about 1 second jb dam 8 4 control no jb mmb 10 4 control no jf prb 10 4 control maybe thin orange very fast compared to previous countdowns no yes orange no no no jf tm 12 4 control no jf rtm 12 4 control no dc jtm 12 4 control no dc jac 2 5 control no ds jds 2 5 control yes white strobe ds rsh 4 5 control no bw cdh 4 5 control no bw dfr 6 5 control no bh slr 6 5 control no bh rdc 8 5 control no bh glc 8 5 control no jb dam 8 5 control no jb mmb 10

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